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Last updated: 6th November, 2011

This page's purpose

An introduction to Ubuntu och GNU/Linux
This text contains a few questions and answers about Ubuntu. The text is intended for those who may want to "try Linux" and perhaps thinking of installing Ubuntu for the first time. Foremost is the page on how to install Ubuntu. "Partitioning" explained bit more detail. (Partitioning is the only thing that makes installing Ubuntu a little different than the installation of any program at any time.) To try to get with the issues that sometimes are perhaps the page has become a bit long and woody Hopefully, at some time be useful to go back to and find information about installing and partitioning.

One must not read this text in order to install and use Ubuntu. For those who just want to download Ubuntu and run the CD directly as this tends to work too. - See Quick Guide in the next paragraph.

Installation is usually possible to implement without any problems. Then the fun begins - Using Ubuntu and its applications usually operate without instructions. Sometime've got, however, almost all a question to ask. Then you are always welcome to Forum. more information, including links.

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Quick Guide
[x] Do not have time to read this web page now? - Get started immediately instead:
1. Download Ubuntu desktop Live-CD.
2. Burn the downloaded file to a CD.
Here is how to burn iso files.
3. Place the CD in the CD player.
The player may set to start automatically and start playing an introduction to Ubuntu. In that case, the.
4. Restart the computer.
If Ubuntu does not start, change in BIOS so that the player is first in start scheme ("boot-order").
5. Choose the option "Try Ubuntu without making changes to your computer."
Ubuntu now runs from the CD player without affecting your computer's hard drive. system runs much slower than an install to hard drive, but allows one to see how Ubuntu works in one's own computer.
6. Possibly install Ubuntu on your hard disk.
If you want install Ubuntu on your hard disk, click the Setup icon on the desktop. There guider showing how the installation will proceed. If you already have Windows on your computer you will, after installation, every time you start your computer, be able to choose if you want to use Ubuntu or Windows.
Looking not install Ubuntu to the hard disk even shut down your computer from the menu bar at the top.
. . .
For those who have installed the operating system (eg Windows) previously can perhaps following information may be sufficient as a quick guide.
Ubuntu can be installed on two partitions:
first System partition (called the root or "/") - the size of 12 GB - filesystem "ext4"
second The swap partition ("swap") - Size: 1 GB - file system "swap"
. . .
If instead you want to install Ubuntu "in Windows" (without partitioning) there are twomethods.
Method 1. Download the installer Wubi. Download Ubuntu desktop Live-CD (Iso file). Add the two files in the same folder in a computer where Windows is started. Click Wubi to start the installation. (It burns not a CD.)
Method 2. Download Ubuntu desktop Live-CD (Iso file). Burniso file to a CD. Start your computer and run Windows. Play the CD to begin installation.
Hur installationen av Ubuntu inom Windows sedan fortsätter visas i denna guide.
. . .
Installation from USB stick
information on the Ubuntu Live CD can be transferred to a USB flash drive. Then you can use and install Ubuntu from there. (It burns not a CD.) If you choose partitioned installation (not the "installation of Windows") to the USB port to be "bootable", ie you must be able to start the computer with software from the USB port. (This works on most modern computers.) How to transfer Ubuntu Live CD to a USB memory device is described on the Ubuntu site.
Here for more information.

 

What is Ubuntu?

Ubuntu is an operating system (the computer's basic system applications - see Dictionary). Ubuntu provides access to a wide range of applications. It is easy to use Ubuntu. - The previously used an ordinary PC (eg Windows) or Mac finds himself quickly corrected in Ubuntu. Ubuntu is based on a system called GNU/Linux (see background).

(To make the additional clear there are those who sometimes call for Ubuntu "Ubuntu Linux".)
to such click and drag files and many other features performed similarly in Ubuntu, PC / Windows and Mac computers. Here is a picture of desktop in basic design. The three main menus at the top left called "Programs", "Places" and "System" in the Swedish version. I apologize that the picture of the desk is old. Ubuntu's new desktop environment has been built with a shell called Unity.
[ Close the window
[The picture from Wikimedia. (The image shows an English version from 2006; The new desktop Unity has been further developed.)]

Ubuntu can replace eg Windows in computer. Anyone who wants can have both Ubuntu and Windows on your computer och använda antingen eller.

who just want Ubuntu on your computer can of course have it. can be yourself, very freely, determine how it wishes to distribute Ubuntu (and possibly. Windows) on its (a) disk (s). If you have one or more disks is not important because if you choose to install only Ubuntu or Ubuntu with Windows.

Ubuntu is available in Swedish, English and many other languages. Several people can use the same computer without anyone being able to take advantage of other users' personal data [moreinfo]. It is Free using Ubuntu and their associated programs. So there is not any add-ons, "enterprise versions" or the like. that is to be pay for. - The version you download is the full. There is also no requirement that you register. Those who wish may also use Ubuntu for commercial purposes. To be presented Ubuntu on its site.

It is also completely free to use Ubuntu to produce other software that one can sell or distribute for free. (They are also entitled to try to sell Ubuntu, but the deal is probably not as good because Ubuntu is available free ) The restriction is true if you distribute (give away or sell) software that can be regarded as "derivative" of another software that is licensed as free. In this case, you must attach the source code of the mukvara they produce themselves so that the entire program is available in open source. See more about "derivative works" Below.
Anyone who wants to have the right to open the company selling support for Ubuntu. The companies of this type exist primarily provides support to other companies. For private users sufficient practically always the
support available for free in forums. See the next paragraph.

Help, support:

Ubuntu has an extensive forum/community-activities in Internet. (There are forums / communities on theSwedish, English and many other languages.) On these "chat rooms" you can ask questions about how to use Ubuntu, and in most cases get good, fast and free help. All kinds of questions can be asked, from the simplest to the most advanced. You are welcome to ask questions even before you installed Ubuntu. In Forum you can also choose a sponsor. It is understood that, over the Internet, reach traditional documentation (seebottom on this page).

Why should you use Ubuntu?

The reasons why you want to use a particular system's often different from person to person. To get more information about Ubuntu, please ask if details here . The author of this text think there are many good reasons to use Ubuntu. Here are the main : Ubuntu is easy to use. Anyone who wishes to be so versatile as possible use their computer by modifications of the system can also do it. Ubuntu use (unlike eg Windows) Open Source and no parts of the system is kept hidden for the user. This is an important cause to viruses or spyware is almost not present in Ubuntu.

Ubuntu's software does not contain commercial parts. This is advantageous in several ways: For information about the Ubuntu software is often more accurate than presented in advertisements for such Windows programs. It is therefore easy to find useful software for Ubuntu. For the same reason, programs are usually easy to install, use and possible. uninstall. Although computer relieved from dealing the commercial parts of the programs. All one can say that it often goes very quickly from the need of a new feature created until its new program is installed.


-- Why should you use Ubuntu? --
1. Viruses and spyware hardly exists.
2. The computer works faster.
3. It is easy to find good programs.
4. The system is flexible.
5. The whole system is available.
6. Ubuntu is free.
When you download Windows software, it can sometimes turn out to programs in advertising claimed to be "freeware" found to have limited usage time or lack the essential elements. This hardly happens in Ubuntu. Windows programs can often do, the user is not clearly recorded, changes in the system (eg in the so-called system registry). The author of this text considers the Ubuntu software usually works just as good as or better than Windows applications and is almost always free. Ubuntu's software is based on so-calledOpen Source and discharged usually downloaded from Ubuntu's official repositories. This means that viruses and spyware are almost unknown concepts in Ubuntu. As of this writing, relatively few Ubuntu users using anti-virus programs. It is also very few users who have viral problems. Without anti-virus software working computer of course faster.
Many of the users of Windows (and other commercial software) may perceive as problems and limitations consists of restrictions that is deliberately added for commercial reasons. (These are inserted, for example, force the user to purchase additions to the program or buy more sophisticated software.) One possibility is that Microsoft deliberately make it harder for rival software to work well under Windows.

When using Ubuntu, it is easy to get goodsupport. risk of getting computer virus or spyware is very low. There is great potential for creating a system that they themselves want it. This applies to everything from system to desktop layout. Many find Ubuntu's "clean" layout appealing. Downloads go fast. Systems, software and support in the forum is running smoothly and free. The use of free operating systems such as Ubuntu includes: that Microsoft Windows is exposed to competition, which benefits all computer users.

Problems that might occur:

What are the possible disadvantages it may entail the use of Ubuntu's also this one individual case. The author of this text believe that the disadvantages are few. As with most new installations occur sometimes problems. These, however relatively uncommon. And there is good
support to obtain. After the row. problem solved, they tend to not re-occur.
In a few cases it may appear that such sound card or wireless network card does not work. In such situations can often solve the problem by getting the support of a forum. As many have already triedUbuntu Live-CD before install Ubuntu on your hard drive so they have a good picture of how the computer will act before they decide to install Ubuntu.

It is dependent on highly specialized programs in such Windows can you need to install them in Ubuntu. Advanced games that are designed Windows has in some cases were difficult to install in Ubuntu. However, this has improved markedly in recent times. If you have a special program that you often use the example Windows and wonder how it works under Ubuntu can question here or read this. Often you do not even install Windows program again. If program is a Windows system on the disk so you can simply start it directly from Ubuntu system (via the "Wine").

Ubuntu works with most types of hardware. Some "hardcore Ubuntister" who want to try to get the most out of their graphics cards however, tend to prefer NVIDIA (or Intel) graphics cards to ATI graphics cards and preferably use computers with these graphics cards.

Program

In the most common uses, such as Web browsing, e-mail, chat / IM (Skype, MSN, etc.) word-processing, image processing, multimedia (media player, etc.), graphic design, spreadsheets / spreadsheet (Excel BEW), file sharing, systems management, programming, server, etc., are naturally good programs in Ubuntu. Ubuntu's software can usually, if needed, also taking care of data from Windows systems. There is also a large number of specialized programs.

Here are some links to lists of equivalents of Windows software in Linux.
("equivalents"/"replacements"/"analogs"/"alternatives"): [1, 2, 3]

Here are some examples of programs (there are many more options):
Archive/compression / splitting tar, unzip, rar, unrar, (zip,) split
burn CD/DVD k3b, Brasero, Nero[1]
data-recovery, recovery TestDisk
disk management GParted, partimage (not ext4 File System), Clonezilla, dd
email Evolution, Thunderbird
File Sharing BitTorrent Azureus, deluge, KTorrent, qBitTorrent, rTorrent
File Sharing DC++ DC++
File Management Krusader, Thunar[2]
ftp, sftp Filezilla, gFTP
IM / chat Pidgin (can Google Talk, Jabber, MSN, Yahoo, ...), Skype
Web browsing Firefox, Google Chromium
Spreadsheet (spreadsheet) LibreOffice calc
word processing LibreOffice writer
"Word processing"/
document preparation
LaTeX
Drawing Inkscape
desktop effects Compiz-Fusion
desktop "information / decorations" Cairo-Dock, Conky, gDesklets
Backup [Se denna sida] (tar, rsync, cpio ...)
text editing ("editors") Gedit, nano, vim, Emacs
[1] - is not free software
[2] The most common desktop environment is Gnome with Nautilus file manager. In the desktop environment Xfce use the file manager Thunar. Those who prefer Thunar can also install it under Gnome.
Some of the most frequently used programs are underlined in the table.


File is easy to create or unpack with right click. Here is more about Archive in Linux.

libre office is a continuation ("fork") of OpenOffice. (OpenOffice is sponsored by Oracle.) [Keywords: Libreville Office, Open Office]

Ubuntu One offers to 2G available real storage online ("cloud" ).


Sound and vision
Imaging GIMP
photo / organizing photos Shotwell, F-Spot
photo management / rotate nautilus-image-converter, ImageMagick/mogrify, jpegtran, Shotwell, GIMP, Phatch
photo management / resize nautilus-image-converter, ImageMagick/mogrify, GIMP, Phatch
media player VLC, Banshee
music player Banshee, Rythmbox, Amarok
rippa CD till MP3 Banshee, Asunder, soundconverter
screencasting, multimedia recordMyDesktop, FFmpeg
Video Avidemux, Kdenlive
Some of the most frequently used programs are underlined in the table.

Here are some links for photo management: [1, 2]

There are many media players to choose from. Here are a few more, besides the two "" primary elections ""   VLC   and   Banshee: Totem, MPlayer, Amarok, Helix, Kaffeine, Realplayer, Rythmbox, XBMC, Winamp.   (Several of these options are not   Free Software.)


Here are some examples ofserver-program:
CMS (blog) Drupal, Joomla!, Wordpress
share files Samba, CIFS, NFS
forum phpBB3, Simple Machines, vBulletin[1]
Photo Album Gallery2
ftp vsftp
mail Postfix, (Sendmail, Exim, Qmail)
Courier, Dovecot (IMAP, POP3), SpamAssasin, ClamAV
SSH OpenSSH
VNC vino-server, RealVNC, UltraVNC
voice chat Ventrilo
webserver apache2, "LAMP" (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP),
webmin, phpMyAdmin, EHCP
web search engine ht://Dig, Sphider
webshop, online store ...
... shopping cart, catalogue
Drupal(/e-Commerce, Ubercart), Joomla!(/VirtueMart) ...
... osCommerce, Zen Cart
[1] = not free software
Some of the most common programs are underlined in the table.
Programs that create web pages (CMS, forums, photo albums, etc.) usually require that you have a LAMP server (see table) installed.


Many of these programs come with already when installing Ubuntu. To install other programs can use Ubuntu's Synaptic Package Manager and easily install applications with a few clicks. After installation, the programs directly available the corresponding menu in the desktop environment.

Problems with computer viruses, spyware and hackers are very small in Ubuntu and almost no users install antivirus software or firewall. Of course there are many opportunities and as an example, here is the following program: clamAV or AVG (antivirus) and ufw or firestarter (firewall).

CMS (Content Management Systems) makes it easier to make web pages such as blogs or sites by immediately surf to the site, login and then enter text, upload images, etc. Very large sites can be built in this way. Also interactive sites such as forums or web shop can be built with CMS. By using CMS, you can make web pages in a faster and easier way than with the traditional method. (Traditional to upload web pages to the server via ftp .) To distribute the pages over the Internet (whether you use CMS or ftp), you must have a webserver installed, often combined with MySQL and PHP server.

Forum softwares do, of course, you can create forums on the net. Others can log in, write questions and answers or discuss various topics. Each topic is structured into a thread with questions and answers.

Many of these software applications using PHP / MySQL. PHP is a programming language used to make web pages. PHP is often used to store or retrieve data from MySQL databases. Data surfer to download from the site is often in a database. In order to build a site with Web pages that use PHP / MySQL you have to have these services installed.

Samba is a server that can share files. It uses the Windows protocols. This means that other computers (Windows or Linux such as Ubuntu) easy access to these files over such a local network or over the Internet via SSH.

With a SSH sserver in your computer, you can remotely control the computer through commands in
terminal. With SSH, you can also use your computer as a proxy server. This means that you as can surf from another computer through your computer. It is a way to remain anonymous online. (proxy is not anonymous, but anyone who connects to it can be.)

You can "tunnel" other client-server relationships (eg Samba file sharing server) between SSH server and SSH client. That way you can give this relationship a good security and encryption when communicating over the Internet. You could say that creating an "intranet" over the Internet.

With a VNC server ("Remote Desktop"), you can remotely control the computer by projecting its desktop on another computer over the Internet . (It is thus at a different computer, but runs his own computer in the same way as if you sat in front of it.)

If you want to distribute files to a local network with both Linux (Ubuntu) and Windows computers usually install the Samba server. (If you use only Linux computers can use the NFS server.)
FTP server is often used to share files over the internet. Both Samba and FTP can control read and write rights separately.
One sure way to send and receive files over the Internet is sftp . It is automatically installed if you install the SSH server. (One can easily connect and send / receive files with such client Filezilla.)

postfix is a mail server (MTA) can send / receive emails to / from other mail servers. In order to retrieve email from mail server, we use email clients that communicates with the mail server via either POP3 or IMAP -servrar/protokoll.


Applications for more basic Internet and networking features:
DHCP dhcp-3
DNS BIND
network (packet) analysis tcpdump, Wireshark
proxy- (http-) server Apache, Squid
routing Quagga

Who uses Linux?

Who uses Linux? The short answer is well: We all do! Linux in the design of sites such as Google and Facebook. Do you use a router at home to connect multiple computers, perhaps the router using Linux. Linux is used in cell phones of several brands, including Nokia and Motorola. In September 2008, admitted Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer to Linux's share of the server market is about 60% while Windows holds about 40%. On personal computer side, various sources estimate the proportion of Linux systems from less than one percent to almost 10%. Both in terms of servers and personal computers as the percentage of Linux users rising. [Source]



Background


Richard Stallman

Linus Torvalds

Tux

GNU

Brian Kernighan

Dennis Ritche

Ken Thompson

Mark Shuttleworth

Ian Murdock
Ubuntu is based on Linux. The name Linux is a for-shortening of system's real-property name: GNU / Linux .

Ubuntu is a so-called Linux distribution (see next paragraph) that has existed since 2004. Ubuntu is based on another distribution - Debian. The detailed programs are written in the contract for "Open Source". This means that anyone can use and spread Ubuntu. Programs are often developed by volunteers . Ubuntu is sponsored by the company Canonical, which sells including training and support services . Canonical is based in the UK and is owned by entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth, originally from South Africa. word"ubuntu" comes from the South African Zulu language and means humanity.
Here you can see and hear Nelson Mandela describe the meaning of the word "ubuntu".

Unix and C

Study this section carefully. Further down is a test of your attention ability.     [Hide]
Here is a tip .
The ideas behind GNU / Linux (sometimes just "Linux") is based on the system UNIX which was developed in the 1970s - and '80s. Much of UNIX development was done at Bell Labs, which belongs the U.S. telecom company AT & T. UNIX and GNU / Linux is mostly constructed in programming language C. Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie began in 1969 create programs that would create UNIX, to begin with, just to be move a computer game between two computers. [Ref.] few years later created the same persons in the C programming language Even Brian Kernighan contributed much to the development of UNIX. thinking behind UNIX has influenced the construction of the Internet. [Ref. 1, 2, 3]

The programming language that preceded C was BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language, skapat i Cambridge 1966) and B (created by Thompson). [Ref.] The first C-compiler was built by Dennis Ritchie in the programming language B 1971st now created C-compilers in C. C evolved from B, including addition of types. name Unix is ??an allusion to the previous system Multics. name C was chosen because it is the next letter in the alphabet after B (as usual programming language) and part of the acronym BCPL. Here describes how Dennis Ritchie C programming language was created.

C is described as a "powerful" programming language. The significance of this is that C makes it easy to directly affect memory addresses and using bit-level operators which facilitates programming of the hardware. Previously, you had to use the machine language for this type of programming.

Compilers for new programming languages ??are usually written in the programming language that already exists. The first compilers formachine language (Assemblatorer) was written by writing programs on paper. Then supranational you instructions to machine code that could be directly stored eg on paper tape or EPROM (Eras Variable Programmable Read Only Memory). [Ref.].

GNU/Linux
Two famous names associated with GNU / Linux is Richard M. Stallman and Linus Torvalds. Torvalds is a Finland-Swedish Helsinki. (He is Finnish with Swedish as their mother tongue.) In the mid-1980s, Stallman began to organize Free Software to build a new operating systems ("GNU Project"). An important component of the new operating system (the so-called "nucleus") Was constructed by Torvalds 1991st

A typical UNIX-based operating at the time of the introduction of Linux was MINIX, developed by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. This operating system was only free for educational purposes. Torvalds wanted by the construction of the Linux kernel should contribute to a completely free operating system.

Today, developing programs of many volunteers throughout the world. Anyone who so wishes has the right to assemble and modify the available components to a new, proprietary operating system. These systems are calledLinux distributions ("distar", eng. "distros"). symbol for the Linux kernel is a penguin.

Torvalds (b. 69) still leads the work on the Linux kernel. As expressed their appreciation of his work Torvalds received stock options of companies Red Hat and VA Linux. The company's IPO in 1999 increased the options' value to young. USD 20 million. Torvalds is an outgoing person who made many
statements that has become legendary in Linux circles Linus work as a programmer in the U.S. and is married to Tove, six-fold Finnish champion in karate. The couple has three daughters.

"The Debian Linux Release" created by Ian Murdock 1993rd Murdock's ambition with a new distribution was to try to improve maintenance and reduce the number of bugs compared to previous deployments. A popular distribution at the time was SLS (Soft Landing Linux systems). SLS and Debian was the first two distributions that were based on software from several different sources. name Debian is a composition of Ian Murdock and his then-girlfriend's - Debra Lynns - first name.

Ubuntu
Mark Shuttleworth (b. 73) founded in 1995 the company Thawte. Thawte worked initially in adapting web server Apache to be able transmit encrypted content without violating the strict U.S. export regulations on encryption methods. Thawte established itself also as an issuer of digital certificates. [Ref.] In 1999, VeriSign bought Thawte of Shuttleworth for equiv. 575 million U.S. dollars so held every company around each half of the market for digital cerifikat. (In May 2010, VeriSign sold its business for data security to Symantec for equiv. 1.3 billion U.S. dollars.)

2002, the Shuttleworth a space flight with the Russian space program. 2005, he founded Ubuntu. Many believe that one important factor that initially contributed to Ubuntu's success was that two major Linux distributions - Fedora and SUSE - divided its verskamhet in two parts: Some of the individuals ( free) and part of the company (fee). now known as the free versions of Fedora respectively. openSUSE. The fee-based versions called Red Hat Enterprise Linux (Red Hat company) and SUSE Enterprise Linux (Novell company). order to get adequate support, updates, etc. must be for these two distributions to pay licensing fees. In contrast to this formulation of "Ubuntu's promise" like this:
"Ubuntu is free. Always has been and always will be. From the operating system to security updates, storage to software." [1, 2] Another expression associated with the distribution is "Ubuntu bug number one." Den formuleras så här: "Microsoft has a majority market share".

Lite på skoj används ibland titeln SABDFL the leaders of various computer-related activities. It stands for Self Appointed Benevolent Dictator For Life" In Ubuntu, it is of course the founder, leader and financier Mark Shuttleworth, sometimes, jokingly addressed as in this way.

Ubuntu is thus based on the Debian distribution. Some considered that the development time for software in Debian project was too long and that this motivated the founding of a new distribution. Ubuntu is designed with the ambition to be easy to use.

One difference between the distributions is that a new version of Ubuntu now comes out every two years, while Ubuntu releases a new version every six months. Both distributions give continuously, including security updates.

Canonical is a private company. (It is wholly owned by Mark Shuttleworth.) Canonical's finances need not be made public. What is known is that Shuttleworth in 2008 said that the company was profitable. [Ref.] As the situation is now so help Shuttleworth financially to the development of Ubuntu. Here's an older interview with Shuttleworth. [Ref.] Canonical has, through Shuttleworths venture capital company HBD, access to a private jet with 19 seats. [Ref.]

2005 founded the Shuttleworth of Ubuntu Foundation with a donation of U.S. $ 10 million. Foundation originally intended to hire key people working with Ubuntu. Foundation has rested and Shuttleworth has said that the capital may serve as a reserve about Canonical's financial contribution to Ubuntu would be reduced. [Ref.]

As of this writing is Ubuntu the most widely used Linux distribution. One way to try to compare polulariteten of different Linux distributions are this. (The table in the right margin ("Page hit rankings") also includes several "specially designed" versions of Ubuntu. You know usually identify them by the name ends in "buntu".)

The relationship between Debian and Ubuntu
2004 followed by Mark Shuttleworth on a Russian icebreaker on a trip to Antarctica. On the journey he took to studying the mailing lists for Debian, a Linux distribution. Later that year he hired about ten of the most active programmers from Debian to create the new distribution Ubuntu. (These programmers had worked essentially voluntary.) Depending on the perspective one can say that Ubuntu is a "fork" or a "derivative" of Debian. On Ubuntu site states including like this: "Ubuntu is proud to be based on Debian."

The software in the two distributions (Debian, Ubuntu) is stored in the same type of packages (files with extension deb). Basically, the source code the same, but the packages are not identical (library versions, destination folders, and other factors may differ). It can work using a package from Debian to Ubuntu, or conversely, but the safest is to pick up their packages from sources corresponding to the distribution you use.

One estimate claimed that 7% of the source code in Ubuntu was packaged specifically for Ubuntu and not Debian. 17% of the packets that are passed from Debian to Ubuntu went through changes before they were included in Ubuntu. These figures together with an explanation of how source code from Debian included in Ubuntu is derived from this
link. Here are some more links for those wishing to read further about what facts are available and any views expressed regarding the cooperation between Debian and Ubuntu: [1, 2]

Ubuntu development cycle
Ubuntu has a development cycle of length 6 months. process starts with the Ubuntu development version released in the real version, and many users are upgrading their version. then developed the new development version and the real version side by side. During the first two months after the upgrade download new packages automatically to the Ubuntu development version from the Debian unstable version. (It is also known as Debian Sid and usually works without problems even though it termed "unstable".) Both the real version and development version receive continuous security updates and updates that fix bugs.
After two months occurs Ubuntu
"Debian import freeze". New packages are downloaded from the Debian then only on the developers' request. Another important step in the Ubuntu development cycle is "Feature Freeze" which occurs after the young. Four months. After this step introduces no new features without focusing during the last two months of troubleshooting and error correction.

Differences in structure between Linux and Windows
differences in structure between Linux and Windows can be debated for long. This text is content to observe a few simple facts:
Linux has emerged from Unix and has always had good facilities for more users to use the same computer. (In Windows, these functions have been built in gradually.)
Linux is more than file-based Windows. System Changes geonomförs eg often by changing the contents of text files. ("Device" such as printers be considered and addressed from the start as files. Data were handled in the "streams".)
Windows ", click in the boxes." These clicks are then stored as such settings in the so-called the system registry.
Linux kernel is built into one unit ("monolithic kernel"), see next paragraph.
Here is more.
Linux consists of open software. In Windows hides the other hand, often deliberately, for commercial reasons, various functions and settings for the user

What is Linux kernel?
Torvalds construction of the Linux kernel in 1991 meant that the software produced and collected by such Stallman could be used in a completely free operating system. core is the link (the program) that allows user programs can use CPU, RAM and various "device" (computer hardware such as disks). security kernel has the highest rank of the programs on your computer ("Ring 0"). No other programs are allowed to influence how the heart works.

It divides the computer's memory in "kernel space" and "user space". Linux kernel is "monolithic". One of the new the hardware drivers running in the same memory space as the kernel itself. One exception is the drivers for the graphics that run in user space. (This is different from Windows running graphics in kernel space.) opposite of monolithic kernel is "micro-kernel". In this latter architecture running drivers in user space.

A monolithic kernel is less (compared to all parts of a micro-kernel) and can run faster than a microkernel. Some regard, however, a micro-kernel that "more modern". A microkernel is easier to maintain because you can more easily replace parts. MINIX creator, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, has criticized Linux to use a monolithic kernel.
[1, 2] However, one can note that both Windows NT, Mac OS X and then use Linux monolithic kernel. [Ref.]

discussion of monolithic kernel vs. micro kernel is still current. A discussion is whether the file system can be placed in user space (micro-kernel architecture). Torvalds still participate in the discussions. As I understand Torvalds opinion, so he believes that a monolithic kernel is the only one who can work well in practice. micro-kernel architecture has certain theoretical advantages, but these are difficult to exploit in practice.

differences are not always as easy to refine. Both Linux, Windows, Mac operstivsystem use called kernel modules. These are devices that can be loaded into and complement the core function. Advantages of kernel modules is that it saves space in memory and desutom can update modules without rebooting the computer. Core Modules have been exploited to install malicious code, in this case called "Rootkits".


HURD [1, 2] is the GNU Project's alternative to the core, be designed with micro-kernel architecture.

What did Linus really?
[The play is in progress. Sorry if some unexplained technical terms remain.]
The kernel task is to load the user programs in memory and ensure that programs the necessary resources such as CPU, memory and I / O-device (input / output to peripheral devices such as keyboard and monitor).
The core acts as an "abstraction layer" for user programs. This means that the user programs such as not need to consider how information on the disks is kept. User programs can instead write or read from the disk with simple commands , generally only specifies what is to be read or written. No details of disk structure such as cylinders or sectors need to be mentioned. One can thus say that there is a pretty clear dividing line between kernel (Linux) and the rest of the operating system (GNU and Ubuntu) here.
kernel and file system disks
[1, 2] working very closely together. (For practical reasons, like Thorvald first filesystem much Minix filesystem. Minix was the operating system that Thorvald worked.)
Would you kommiunicera with the kernel (read or put parameters, for example) usually often do this by reading or writing files in the / proc. These files are called virtual. This means that they are generated "on the fly" by the kernel. The files are not on the disk.
Thorvald wrote programs for the processor 80386th He used the C programming language's a good opportunity to give instructions to the hardware. He avoided using the instructions that were dependent on the operating system but used only instructions that directly utilize the processor 80386th
programs are translated into machine code with the GNU C compiler that is still used to build the Linux kernel.
His first program was a task-switcher and a terminal driver. He just needed a terminal emulator for accessing Unix servers at the University of Helsinki. [ Ref. ] As he writes in his book
"Just for Fun" he realized after a while that he built the foundation for a kernel of an operating system.
The first program he transferred
(eng. ported) to the new operating system was a command interpreter (shell) and the GNU project C compiler. He invited other programmers to participate in the project. Linux is a fine example of what cooperation on free software can achieve.



Ubuntu Live-CD

-- Download Live CD! --

The Live CD, you always have a working system in the computer (surfing, e-mail, word-treatment, disk management, etc.), regardless of what happened to your computer hard drive.

You can often via the Live-CD direct access and save data from such a Windows system if it would get tangled.

It is increasingly common to use Ubuntu Live CD from USB stick. See below under paragraph USB installation . .

Ubuntu Live CD can be used for more than to install Ubuntu. Ubuntu Live CD provide a fully functioning system (orbehandling, web browsing, email, disk management, etc.) regardless of state of the computer's hard drive. If your hard drive suffered injury unable for reasons viruses such as Windows would tangle of other causes so still functioning Ubuntu Live CD fine. You can, in many cases via the Live-CD direct access and save data from such . a Windows systems on your Windows system would have problems. (Because the disk is not used, however the system slower than if you install it on your hard disk.)

It is increasingly common to use Ubuntu Live CD from USB stick. See below under paragraph USB installation .

There are several ways you can use the Live CD to recover data from such a Windows system affected by the problem. After you load the data into Live CDns system, for example:

1. Storing data via the USB port for external hard disk or USB stick. Even if the disk / strip previously only used in Windows (usually NTFS or FAT32 file systems sometimes) so it is nice to save data on it with the live CD.

2. Store on another internal disk

3. Create a partition on the same disk and store data where

4. Email data to yourself

Anyone who uses such as Windows XP, often lack good disk management tool in a working system. Then Ubuntu Live CD to be useful. (The command GParted starts a good disk manager.)
Unless specifically requested, the Live-CD such as to install Ubuntu so will use the Live CD will not leave any traces the computer or on disk. If you so choose, however, free to read and write to your hard drive.

Man kan ladda ner Live-CD från t.ex. Ubuntu's main server eller Ubuntu Swedish server. What server you download from has no bearing on what system you want to install. language you choose for example later in the installation. One of Ubuntu's strengths is that it is easy to modify the system even after installation. It says more about the Live-CD and otherUbuntu versions below.

You can use the Ubuntu Live CD in several ways:

1.   Insert the disc into the CD player and then restart the computer, then you can choose to:

1a. Test Driving Ubuntu without the computer's hard disk is affected.
(While test-driving is also an icon on your desktop that you can click if you want to install Ubuntu to the hard disk.)

1b. Direct install Ubuntu on your hard drive.

2.   Installing Ubuntu "in Windows" ;This can be done in such these two ways:

2a. First, start Windows, then play the Ubuntu Live CD in the CD player, select "install Ubuntu in the Windows".

2b. Download Ubuntu Live-CD (i s.k. iso-format), Download the installer Wubi. Add these two files in the folder anywhere in Windows computer and click Wubi. (If you use this option so you do not burn any CD to install Ubuntu.)

3.  Installing Ubuntu in a "virtual" environment. Ref:[1, 2, 3, 4] (This website does not elaborate on this procedure without the honor to refer to the links where it describes what to do.)

-- How can you use Ubuntu? --
A. Directly from the CD. (1.a)
B. From the install size. (1.b)
C. Installing in Windows (2)
D. Install virtualt (3)
E. From USB stick


USB-installation

Live-CD on USB-medium (Casper installation)
Installation from USB flash drive has become much more common and easier. Med de metoder som beskrivs nedan kan man både köra Ubuntu (som en Live CD) och (om man vill) installera Ubuntu på hårddisken. Installationen fungerar som en vanlig Live CD och datorn körs enbart från USB-minnet utan att datorn eller dess hårddisk påverkas om man inte begär att Ubuntu skall installeras på hårddisken.

1. Pendrivelinux
You simply go to Ubuntu's own site and follow the instructions to create a Live CD on a USB stick. (This applies to different instructions depending on whether one uses Linux, Windows or Mac computer to create the USB installation.) [pendrivelinux]

2. UNetbootin
You can also create a bootable USB stick with the program UNetbootin [Ref.], this program (as well Pendrivelinux) can be used in both Ubuntu and Windows.

3. Startdisk
You can also choose command "Create boot disk" from the Ubuntu menus to adding Live CD on a USB stick. (You can run Ubuntu directly from the Live CD or from an Ubuntu install size when creating the installation on the strip.) [1, 2]. (You can also copy the file "usb creator.exe" from Ubuntu Live CD and run the file separately under Windows.)


These methods create a bootable USB stick with a "persistent" (if you choose that option) installing Ubuntu. With persistent means in this case, the settings and data stored between uses.
strip must be able to store 2GB of data or more. (1GB size works if you select "non-persistent" installation.)

NOTE!
A USB stick is not classified as a "removable device" on all computers BIOS . Instead, one must in some systems (eg Eee PC) change in "Hard Drive Order" in the BIOS to place the strip first in boot order.
One can also, when you start your computer, press the corresponding key (different depending on computer manufacturers, sometimes or F8) providing the ability to directly change the boot order for this boot.

If the USB stick ("flash drive") does not boot when you restart your computer so let it sit in the computer and restart the computer. If the computer hangs and just shows black screen then shut down the computer (on laptops / netbooks by holding down the power on button for 10 seconds). Then start the computer again with the needle left in the USB socket.
If you have a larger USB-stick There are different ways to add storage. (A störrre stick is to recommend a "persistent" installation.)
The file that stores the USB installation call "Casper-rw loop file '(' Casper file"). To enlarge Casper-file, use
this procedure. [Ref.] This file is in FAT32 format and can not be larger than 4 GB.
If you have a USB stick that is larger than 4GB can instead to use a Casper file create a
Casper partition which can be allocated an arbitrary size.

Full installation
Yet another way to create an installation on a USB stick is to use the usual installation procedure: You start a Live CD and select the option "Install Ubuntu". When it comes to partitioning, select "manual partitioning" and install Ubuntu to the partitions on the USB stick. This requires a USB stick with at least 4GB of storage. You could call this method for a "full installation".

When you do a full installation you have to avoid bootloader (grub2) written into the MBR on the computer's fixed disk. One can choose the corresponding option during the installation. (Enter bootloader on the USB stick instead.) Anyone who wants to be safe than sorry mount from the fixed hard disk during installation.
Yes you can do full updates and upgrades, just like in a real HDD installation. Following step by step for Full install of 10.10 to USB device, adjust partition size to suit: Turn off and unplug the computer. (See note at bottom.) Remove the side from the case. Unplug the power cable from the hard drive. Plug the computer back in. Insert the flash drive. Insert the Live CD. Start the computer, the CD should boot. Select language. Select install Ubuntu. Select Download updates while installing and Select Install this third-party software. Forward At "Allocate drive space" select "Specify partitions manually (advanced)". Forward Confirm Device is correct. Select "New Partition Table" click Continue on the drop down. Click "Free space" and "Add". Select "Primary". Make "New partition size..." about 1GB. Location = Beginning. "Use as:" = "FAT32 file system" And "Mount point" = windows. Select "OK" Click "free space" and then "Add". Select "Primary", "New partition size ..." = 3 to 4 GB, Beginning, Ext4, and Mount point = "/" then OK. (Optional) Click "free space" and then "Add". Select "Primary", "New partition size ..." = 1 to 2 GB, Beginning, Ext2, and Mount point = "/home" then OK. (Optional) Click "free space" and then "Add". Select "Primary", "New partition size ..." = remaining space, (1 to 2 GB), Beginning and "Use as" = "swap area" then OK. (Important) Confirm "Device for boot loader installation" points to the USB drive. Default should be ok if HDD was unplugged. Click "Install Now". Select your location. Forward. Select Keyboard layout. Forward. Insert your name, username, password, computer name and select if you want to log in automatically or require a password. Selecting "Encrypt my home folder" is a good option if you are woried about loosing your USB drive. Select forward. Wait until install is complete. Turn off computer and plug in the HDD. Stick the side panel back on. Note: You may omit disabling the hard drive if after partitioning you choose to install grub to the root of the usb drive you are installing Ubuntu to, (ie sdb not sdb1). Be cautious, many people have overwritten the HDD MBR. At boot you will then be given the option to boot your computer's hard drive, even when booting another computer. - - - Från C.S.Cameron/ubuntuforums.org


Differences
One can note the differences between a "Casper" installation and a full installation:
  1. A Casper installation works as a Live CD and run from RAM. It works up faster than a full installation if you use it from a relatively slow USB stick.
  2. A Casper Setup can not update.
  3. A full installation has no installer. Thus, one can not install Ubuntu from there
  4. In a full installation, you can choose, for example, use proprietary drivers for video cards. (An advantage if you like to use the proprietary drivers, but you should uninstall them when you move the stick to a computer of another model.)

Not only USB sticks have more storage space and to become cheaper. even external hard drives have been developed. These are fast and much less than before. Since the external hard drives are small, works fast and has great storage space they have become a very attractive option for installing Ubuntu on a portable medium.

Detailed Instructions
[The play is in progress.]
It has become easier to create a USB installer (described above). The detailed instructions in this paragraph is no longer entirely valid. However, should any problems occur with the standard way to install via USB memory so you can read the following paragraph.
Occasional users describe still problems with the installation from USB stick. If you have problems with installation via USB flash drive and have no desire or time to troubleshoot, and your computer is equipped with a CD player, should be installed via the CD player instead.

You can add material from the live CD on a USB stick . (Most common is the use of Live CDs, but procedures for using alternative disc are included below.) Many think this is a practical way to bring Ubuntu to other computers. It may also be a convenient way to install Ubuntu on a netbook computer with no CD drive. The demands placed on the machine running "Ubuntu Live USB" is to USB port is "bootable". (This means that the computer can boot from the USB port. This applies to most modern computers, but you can check if USB port is bootable by opening the so-calledBIOS.) If this is your first time installing Ubuntu so maybe you need some help to put the installation on a USB stick. It is then feel free to ask in forum. There is also a guide.
You can also create a bootable USB stick with the program UNetbootin [Ref.], this program (as well Pendrivelinux) can be used in both Ubuntu and Windows. UNetbootin creates (like Pendrivelinux) a "persistent" installation. Persistent means that if you run the Live CD from USB-stick so stored data on the stick until the next time you use it. Ubuntu 10.10 showed some problems to create a bootable USB stick. Trent Scott's blog, had a solution. I have a little difficulty opening the link and can only give it in the alternative: [Ref.] (The file syslinux / syslinux.cfg change the line "ui gfxboot boot logo" to "gfxboot boot logo".) Att använda ubuntu 11.04 från USB-sticka har inte uppvisat några motsvarande problem.

It should be possible to create Live CDs and USB in PC and run them on Macs (and vice versa). Is it still a problem, it is easiest if you use the same type of computer (PC resp. Mac) to create Live-CD/USB planned to use the media in. [Ref.]
Macs require GPT (GUID) partition table (not "normal" MBR) to boot from hard disk or USB drive. We might have to convert the boot partition to the Mac file system HFS + to boot to a USB stick loaded with Live CD into a PC .
Thus - If you want to create a bootable USB stick on a Mac is the safest way to use a Mac-computer to create the thumb drive.

In these texts are sometimes used the term "frugal install". This means that you are running the system from an image (such as an iso file) on disk. (In a "normal" installation as expanded course such as iso file for all their input folders and files which are used by the disk. system works faster than the ISO file using the the CD

 

Installation

What computers can use Ubuntu?

The basic rule is that all PCs and the Macs that are designed with "Intel architecture" (see next paragraph) can install Ubuntu with the normal installation methods. On netbooks, many people choose to install "Ubuntu Netbook Edition." [ NOTE: I.o.m. Ubuntu ver. 11:04 (Natty Narwhal) has the special netbook version deleted and you can install the "regular" Ubuntu version in netbooks.] See more belowSystem Requirements below.

Another word for the Intel architecture is "x86 architecture". Most modern computers can work according to this basic architecture introduced by Intel's processor (CPU) 8086th

Previously, Macs an architecture named Power-PC (PPC). In 2005 and 2006, the Intel architecture (see above) for newly constructed Macs. On these newer Macs, you can then install Ubuntu with the usual installation CD. There is a special installation CD for the older (PPC) Macs.

How do I install Ubuntu?

- One can for example download Ubuntu Live CD this or this. (The CD can be downloaded to a so-called "iso-file" which you use to burn a CD. You can also download Ubuntu as a - of course legally - bit-torrent file.) Ubuntu Live CD allows one to "test drive" Ubuntu without the computer or hard disk is affected. One can also use Ubuntu Live CD to install Ubuntu on your hard drive. See above paragraph on Live-CD.

You can also follow Quick Guide above.

Should I choose 32 - or 64-bit version of Ubuntu Live CD?

- Is this your first time installing Ubuntu is the easiest to use 32-bit version of Ubuntu (the "x86 architecture" or "standard personal computer"). 32-bit version of Ubuntu also works with computers that use 64-bit processors (AMD 64, Intel 64, x86-64).

64-bit version of Ubuntu, like eg corresponding version of Windows Vista / Windows 7, provide performance improvements. As regards both of these operating systems are performance improvements usually very moderate and in isolated cases, 64-bit versions of both operating systems could cause malfunctions.
(The version of Windows Vista that comes with new PCs - OEM installation - usually 32-bit variant. These are usually sold without any real support. The so-called support can be contact only sees as its responsibility to "rule out hardware problems". If you have problems with Windows Vista OEM installation will usually not help the problem but only Council to erase the entire disk and install the OS again. Would you buy Windows Vista with proper support, you have to buy the operating system separate , not supplied OEM installation.)
A restriction with 32-bit operating systems is that they can only use 3.2 GB of RAM. In practice, however, this fact often be of secondary importance.

How to burn an iso file?

- The so-called iso file you downloaded is an image ("image") of all the files included in the Ubuntu Live CD. When you burn it, most burning software will automatically take into account that there is an image and divide the contents of the iso file in the input files burned onto CD. (therefore, they should not burn the iso file a single file on the CD.) This usually do not cause any problems. Double-clicking on an iso file, most systems will automatically burn it correctly. Burn like all installation disks with minimum speed.

In many download pages, you see two options. You can either download Ubuntu as "iso file" or "via BitTorrent '/' that Torrent file". This expression might be a little irregular, in both cases it is an iso file to download. difference lies in how to download the file. In the first case you simply click on the file in the browser. In the second case, you use the system BitTorrent to download the file.

Is it possible to install from USB stick?

- When this text was started (2007), it was not as common as now with installation from USB flash drives (USB sticks, "flash memory sticks", "thumb-drives", "pen-drives"). A self- page was devoted to how to install Ubuntu on a system without a CD player.

Installation from USB flash drive has become much more common and easier. It is more this.
You simply go to Ubuntu's own site and follow the instructions to create a Live-CD on a USB stick.
One factor that contributed to making this possible is that it is now very common to computer's USB port ("USB connector") is "bootable". This means that you can start your computer using software from the USB port. To install Ubuntu from a USB flash drive must computer's USB port to be "bootable".

Can you install from DVD?

- It is possible to burn the Ubuntu CD images (iso files) to DVD and install from them. There are also ready DVD- images .

Some users have had problems installing from the DVDs. Should problems arise when installing from DVD is the first step of buy home audio CDs and burn iso image to a CD "as usual" instead.
If you are using Windows and want to burn a DVD you can for example using the program
imgburn.

How much disk space required to install Ubuntu?

- It is preferable to have at least 6 GB empty disk space to allocate Ubuntu. (This is the traditional desktop environment. It is possible to tailor solutions for less disk space, case of this example this. Here is also more about the demands placed on your computer. Ubuntu version of "Xubuntu" can be installed on only 1.5 GB disk space, see below.)

Ideally you should have 6 GB of space to allocate Ubuntu. Have you also Windows computer one must of course leave blank space for Windows to work with. As an example, 10 GB of empty space when you install Ubuntu you can for example provide 6 GB of space to Ubuntu and provide 4 GB of space left for Windows (4 GB of unused space on the "Windows partition"). See below.

If I am already running Windows, the installation of Ubuntu affect my Windows system?

- No. When you start your computer, you can choose if you want to start Ubuntu or if you want to run Windows as before.

I access my old data?

- If you drive already as Windows and adds Ubuntu will Ubuntu to read data from your Windows system. Many Windows applications can be use in Ubuntu. However, there are counterparts to the vast majority of Windows programs in Ubuntu. Ubuntu also connects to the Windows Network.

If you have both Ubuntu and Windows on your computer and want to access Windows data while you are running Ubuntu you should turn off Windows completely before you start Ubuntu. It's fine to use Windows viloloäge ("hibernate") but in some cases will not access the Windows system files from Ubuntu.

In what order should I install the operating system?

- This guide assumes that you install Ubuntu on a blank disk or on a disk that already runs Windows. If you have a blank disk in which you plan to install both Windows and Ubuntu is the easiest way to first install Windows . This is because the Ubuntu boot loader ("bootloader") which can be easily installed to start or Windows or Ubuntu. You can course also add Windows to a system that already runs Ubuntu. A bit more about this, there this.

Before a Windows partition shrink, the de-frag-mented.

Is there something you need to think about before starting the installation?

- If you are already running Windows, and want to keep it alongside Ubuntu, it is recommended to perform the Windows command "defragmentation" before installing Ubuntu. (In Windows XP / Vista is the command below: Accessories> System Tools.) One should always back up important data. One should of course also know how much hard drive you have and how much empty space available. (In Windows XP / Vista, click "My Computer"> Local Disk (C:)> right click / properties)

Linux upload files a little differently than Windows. It leaves just a little more space between the files and fragmentation does not occur as easily. Därför brukar man vanligen inte behöva defragmentera Linux-system. [1, 2, 3, 4]

Those who wish to partition itself ("manually") should also put into how the information on your computer's hard drive is organized. If you already using Windows, you can (right-) click "My Computer"> manage> disk management . You will then see which disks you have and how they are divided ("partitioned"). Man bör ha en uppfattning om partitionernas sequence, File System and size if you intend to use the manual partitioning. This information does to "recognize themselves" when you partition and benefits of the different parts of Ubuntu on their respective partitions. (Windows is now using mostly NTFS file system, previously used FAT32. This can help identify the parts of the disk (the "partitions") where Windows is located.)
NOTE! The partitions need not be numbered in the order they are "physically" on the disk. The "container" (extended partition, "extended partition") whose function is to allow for logical partitions may also be its own partition name. See
examples further down.

You may like to spend some extra time to this point. It's always good to know exactly which disks and Partitions included in one's system. Simply identify a partition with a numbers can be wrong. The example called for partition # 3 of a program need not be the partition is called with the same number of another application. This is true regardless what software and operating system you are running. This is true enough all types of installations / upgrades, it's usually good to go through the conditions as best they can before to start the installation / upgrade. Usually, however, no problems. Typically, the disk is usually only contain a single Windows partition.

Windows Recovery CD

If you plan to install Ubuntu along with Windows, it also be a good idea to get to a closer acquaintance with his Windows Recovery CD. course Windows comes with an installation / recovery CD. (Sometimes we are asked to burn yourself when you just started using his new computer.) As described below is this recovery CD ("recovery CDs") used on example To uninstall Ubuntu.

What you can do is put the CD and restart the computer which then start the computer from the CD ("boot from CD"). (Make sure the CD / DVD player is the first in the boot order in BIOS) One can then verify that you can navigate to the so-called "Recovery console". It includes a "DOS Prompt", ie the software (operating system) that makes it possible to give basic commands. When you know how to get there, you can exit by issuing the command "exit" which restarts the computer. Here is a link to the commands that can be given in the recovery console.

It may be useful to know how to reach the recovery console. Installation of Ubuntu is causing very rarely a problem. However, should any problems arise, it is unlikely that damaged a Windows as possible. available on disk. (The only thing wrong you can really commit, which can not be repaired, if you want to keep Windows, is to format the Windows partition. How this is avoided is describedbelow.) In an unfortunate case would however be able to get problems with startup management ("GRUB/GRUB2"). It may seem dramatic when the computer just starts with a black screen, but in this case, Windows is not affected. It has been damaged, the initial treatment and this can often be repaired easily with Windows restore disk, which is described in more detail below (You start the recovery disk and give the command "fixmbr" and in some cases even "fixboot". This will restore the Windows boot loader.) (If you have already installed Ubuntu and it works, but wrong in starting treatment occurs, usually instead to repair the bootloader with Ubuntu Live CD described in other Links)

Recovery of Windows

If you plan to use both Ubuntu and Windows on same computer should consider the following: Sometimes there is another Windows Partition alongside system partition. (The system partition is usually called C:) This second Windows partition called the "recovery partition" (from Windows can be restored, often by press F8 or F11 at startup).

If the Windows system contains a recovery partition can reset this option made impossible if repartition the disk. (Although the recovery partition, remains on the disk so it can not be used to restore the system if the disk partition has changed.) If you get Windows problems should, therefore, in this case, instead restore their Windows systems through Windows Recovery CD (or DVD). Do you know exactly what applies to one's own computer so you can for example call computer's general agent / supplier in Sweden (Support) and ask. One can of course also send email to the same place, or write in English to the international support of computer factory.
Recovery Discs that are delivered to computers by brand Acer assumes that you already have Windows installed when running recovery discs. If you format the hard drive on an Acer Computer and plans to re-install Windows be taken to ensure that you have access to a Windows installation disc. (serial number for Windows can be found on a sticker the bottom of the laptop computers and in the documentation accompanying desktops.)

What should you avoid?

If you intend to keep the Windows can not format the Windows-party organization.

- If you are already running Windows and want to keep this parallel with Ubuntu, you must be careful of the following during installation: When partitioning / formatting execution are indicated by check marks in boxes which partitions to be formatted. You then of course NOT put any tick in the box for the partition that contains the old Windows system . We know enough, usually again the partition of the Windows file system - NTFS. (Sometimes also used FAT32.) If you put a checkmark where deleted of course the old Windows system (Windows partition formatted).

I'm going out on a limb and say: When you install Ubuntu, there is only one really big gaffe that one can do. It is not possible to repair: If you want to keep Windows in parallel with Ubuntu must not format the Windows partition. disappears from Windows system including all data. Any other boob units are rare, and usually go pretty easy to fix.

If you format the Windows partition, you can of course get back into Windows computer (it will only install Windows again), but the data (letters, music, photos ...) who have been saved is lost forever if you do not have backups.


Always make backups of important data at regular intervals.
Always make backup copies of important data periodically. This applies regardless of whether you run Windows or Ubuntu. copies shall be on an "external" medium such as a USB stick or a USB-connected disk. Smaller amounts of data can be eg email to yourself and save in his mailbox.
Do not keep Windows for now but may instead install Windows again, later, one can, however course format or delete the Windows partition. When you want to install Windows again, after so create only one partition and install Windows there. Of course you have to save the data (letters, music, photos ...) been collected in the system before removing it.

Especially when you are partitioning manually must therefore keep track of their partitions, highlighted in several places in this text.
It's very rare that something more serious error occurs during installation. In general one can say that if you are having a more serious cause, such as that it does not start but just shows a black screen, so one might suffer a little "panic" feeling.   If you want to keep their data, so one should not immediately take up their Windows CD and install a new system. If you have not formatted the Windows partition so there is usually good chance to get up and running again. You may need to get some guidance in a forum. If you do not have large amounts of data to save or software to install, you can consider using Ubuntu Live-CD, Save the data that is current and then reinstall the system.


It generated an error message when installing with Live CD
Sometimes the show driving with Live CD or the first part of the installation with live CD errors. If you are unsure about the significance of these errors can have one can of course ask in a forum. (If the installation has not reached the point where partitions are formatted, it is possible to cut short the installation.)

One way to fix this or similar problem may be that partition before installation, as described below and then try to install with Options CD.
Options CD also includes a partitioner, but it is the first time you install, it might be easier to first partition with eg GParted and then install the alternative CD, as described in the link above.

This text does not go into debugging in detail, but you get a more serious cause (eg, frozen computer, black screen) it may be useful to know how to try and open a terminal. Pressing ctrl/alt/F2 and this opens up a terminal (a black screen where you can log in and type commands), this suggests that system works but the drivers for the graphics work incorrectly. In this mode, for example stop system:
sudo shutdown -h now
or restart the graphic:
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart
(Man comes back from the terminal mode to graphics with the command ctrl/alt/F7.)
If you have a server edition and want to install ("Graphic") desktop environment, you write:
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
sudo startx
Obs!
Följande avsnitt är under arbete:
Reguljära uttryck, Skript, sed; Grafik, fönsterhantering
Områdena behandlas främst här:
1. Skript
2. Ubuntu - Grunder (Innehållsförteckning > överkurs)
Om styckena är svårlästa så hoppa bara över dem, förstås

Graphics, window management
You start on the graphics from the graphic environment with the command ctrl + alt + backspace (Press the three keys simultaneously). To perform this command, you must first activate it by checking: System> Preferences> Keyboard> Layout> Options> "key combination to kill the X server" When then executes the command is simultaneously logged.

Simultaneously pressing AltGr + SysRq + another key is a way to send signals to the Linux kernel. Right Option key ("alt gr") + SysRq + k will kill all user processes and can be used to restart the graphics (and of course to be offline). not experiment by adding other letters than "k" without first find out what the command does [Ref.].

Other commands that can be used to control the graphics are:
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm stop
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm start
gdm is the "Display Manager" used by the desktop environment "Gnome". The graphics on Ubuntu is based on systmet X11 ("X"). An essential component of X consists of a display manager. When you log in graphically prompted one of the Display Manager the username and password. If these are correctly set connected to the X11 server for a graphical session.

Det finns naturligtvis ert sätt att skapa output på skärmen utan grafik. Grafiken genereras mjukvarumässigt i grafikminnet ("videominnet"). Linuxkärnan skriver direkt på ett s.k. "framebuffer-device". På detta sätt skriver man vanligen bara bokstäver och siffror. (Men det går även att generera bilder.)

In Ubuntu's GNOME desktop environment commonly, but you can easily switch to other environments such as KDE (Kubuntu) or Xfce (Xubuntu). An important part of the desktop environment consists of window management. The most common window manager in Ubuntu is called Metacity . To handle special effects can replace Metacity with another window - Compiz . (Kubuntu uses förnsterhanteraren KWin which can also include special effects. Xubuntu uses the Xfce window manager .)
A window manager can use "AIGLX" (Accelerated Indirect GLX). AIGLX describes how the window manager sends its commands to the graphics card drivers. AIGLX is intended to make good use of the features of modern graphics card (3D). predecessor to AIGLX called Xgl.
OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is the standard (API) that programmers use. GLX (OpenGL Extension to the X Window System) is the protocol that combines OpenGL with the X server.

Ref: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Unity
From Ubuntu verse 11:04, the desktop gnome2 modified with a "shell" named Unity. Unity has arisen from the project Compiz-Fusion. Here is a guide describing how Unity works ("Dash" and "launcher").

Here is a quote from Ubuntu Wiki which describes "Dash" (one of Unity's most important parts).
One of Unity's main features is the Dash. The Dash allows the user to quickly search for information both locally (installed applications, recent files, bookmarks, etc) and remotely (Twitter, Google Docs, etc).
The Dash achieves this by having one or more Lenses. that each are responsible for providing one category of search results for the Dash. The user may search the Lens either through the Dash home screen (called global search) or through the Lens' own page in the Dash by clicking on the Lens' icon on the Lens Bar.
[...] a Lens does not actually perform any searches itself. Instead, a Lens will have one or more Scopes which are the actual engines that do the searching for it.
This means that it is possible for new Scopes to supplement results of existing Lenses i.e. a Google Docs Scope can supplement the results of the default Zeitgeist Scope in the Files Lens, with results appearing side-by-side. Also, this means it is now possible for one Lens to have many Scopes i.e. the Music Lens can have a Banshee, UPNP and Spotify Scopes providing results to it.


Unitys "launcher" constitute a bar ("sidebar") that slides out when the mouse pointer to the left edge. In it you can place the programs and locations that you want to access quickly.
Dash remember what programs and sites you use often ("Zeitgeist") and presents them easily accessible. You can also enter the names of programs and locations and Dash are looking up these.
Launch Dashboard, click the Ubuntu icon at the top left. You can choose to see Dash in full screen or as a window just as you would any other window (three buttons at the top left).
Lenses (In Dash) organizes programs and sites by categories.

Here are some screenshots showing Unity.

The programs gconf-editor and gconftool can still be used to modify the desktop environment. (Unity and Gnome 3 are two options for the desktop environment in Ubuntu.)
To set the desktop environment, you can also access the system menu ("desktop effects") and use dconf:
sudo apt-get install dconf-tools
[Ref: Unity: 1 2; dconf: 1, 2]

Troubleshooting
General troubleshooting steps may be to choose the command "test CD" from the option-CDns start menu and burn the CD with lowest speed. An incomplete installation can be because the CD does not fit in the current reader. Check this by selecting the option "Test CD" or calculating a MD5-sum with the disc in the current reader. If the installation with live CD presents problems should try to install an alternative CD.

If you have more posts (nuclei) in the start menu you can try to start the computer from them. Some of the items classified as 'recovery' (recovery) and provides greater opportunities to run and explore system in "debug mode".

If the computer freezes during boot, you can try removing the image displayed during startup (the "bootsplashen") and replace it with prints. How to make it out the bottom of the this page.

If your computer is working fine with previous releases of the Live-CD you can try to install from these. Later upgrades to new versions need nödvändigtsvis not give the same error that the newer versions of the Live-CD/installation.

If you have problems with your network, you can try turning off any firewall briefly. Do not forget to check the network adapter is turned on wifi does not work. (on laptops and netbooks, there's sometimes a dedicated button on the front or using the blue Fn key to switch the wifi card.)

If the WiFi signal is not sufficient for an older laptop, you can try to buy a new USB-connected WiFi card. This may be connected with a long USB cable and also in this way be able to place the card in a location with optimum signal strength. Small changes in the placement of the router and wifi card can produce large changes in signal strength.


To list the hardware (and read as html) and kernel modules / drivers can issue the following commands:
lshw -html > system.html && xdg-open ./system.html
lsmod
lsmod | grep nv
("grep nv" = only rows that contain "nv" (for NVIDIA) prints.)
These commands list PCI respectively. USB devices:
lspci
lsusb
dmesg print the kernel's buffer (the drivers are often of interest). tail shows continuously the latest content.
dmesg | tail -f
If you want a list of the processes that uses most of CPU resources, you write
top


If you have other, general, problems with image usually first troubleshooting measure is to opt out "desktop effects" in the "system".

We network problems, it is often first to turn off all firewalls briefly and see if the problem disappears. (Of course, one must be aware that the computer during this short time become more vulnerable to attacks from outside.)


Why can't you play MP3 or DVD?

For legal reasons you have to yourself to download the components dealing with MP3 and DVD. This is easy to do and is free of charge. Learn how it works tohere . After download and installation, you can play this type of music and movies.

Here is a link to download and install the necessary codecs with one click. [installera codecs] There are additional instructions: [1, 2]

The component that decodes MP3 music is patented in the U.S., Japan and Australia. Anyone using this component in these countries could be obliged to pay patent royalties. For individuals, private users and non-commercial organizations , it seems at present unlikely that royalties would be levied. (To my knowledge it has never happened.) Someremixes contains components that allows directly play MP3 or DVD. The privately owned media player Flash player is in a similar situation. DVD player is protected in the United States by the so-called "Digital Millennium Copyright Act."
For those who use these components in Sweden are, to my knowledge, no legal restrictions. far as I know have not even discussed the possibility to demand royalties for using these components in Sweden.
software to play DVD is free, but proprietary
[Ref.] Those who wish can also convert MP3 to formats that can be read by free and proprietary software. [Ref.]

Ubuntu is delivered now with the media player Banshee. Many people tend to install another media player: VLC. (This is done easily, in the usual way, by selecting System> Administration> Synaptic Package Manager, then select VLC and then "out".)
If you have problems to download any software, check that the corresponding
software source is checked. (The main sources of software called main, restricted, universe and multiverse.)

In the case of proprietary software to use the graphics card (such as drivers for graphics cards and NVIDIA ATI) is not the same restrictions on software patents.

 

Installation without partitioning

Man kan även install Ubuntu without partitioning , installation within Windows. installer called Wubi. This way of installing Ubuntu is performed by first start Windows and then play the Ubuntu Live CD in the CD player. One can then choose to "install Ubuntu in Windows". This works, including Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7. Further guidance is available här This can sometimes be a useful way to install. You do not partition the disk. If you want to uninstall Ubuntu so using simply Windows uninstaller ("Add / Remove Programs"). This simplifies installation and, in particular, Uninstall.

Another way to implement this setup is that add the downloaded file (Ubuntu Live CD - which can be downloaded in called "iso-format") in the same folder as the Setup program Wubi and then start Wubi. Installs in this way you do not burn any CD. When you install Ubuntu within Windows to start it then never computer ("boot" is not) from the CD. The installation runs when Windows is already running. (If you do not download Ubuntu Live CD but direct downloading Wubi and start Wubi will Wubi itself, prior to the installation, download the Ubuntu Live CD.)

The difference in function between installations with or without partitioning is not great. Ubuntu developers, however, recommend that anyone who use Ubuntu as their main operating system should still install through partitioning. Including disk will then serve slightly faster. If you install Ubuntu "in Windows", one can also imagine that the system becomes some "sensitive" - ??the Windows system would tangle so may result in problems also in Ubuntu installation. However, if one partition becomes Ubuntu System more "independent" and unlikely to be affected by such a crashed Windows.

Possibly influenced debugging a little bit of the installation form to use. With non-partitioned installation can sometimes be puzzled by the a problem stemming from Windows or Ubuntu. Most "hardcore" Ubunuanvändare also use partitioned installation. (You can get more detailed help partitioned installation.) Overall, it is thus, in my opinion, easier to troubleshoot the system with partitioned installation. It will operate the installation method you use, but my own personal recommendation is that you puts you into a little bit of how partitioning works and install in this way.

 

Partitioning

The most common way to install Ubuntu means "partition" your hard drive . To partition means that divide your hard disk in parts, so-called " partitions ". Ubuntu usually placed on two or more of these newly created partitions. The first time you partition it seems perhaps strange, therefore explained a bit about partitioning below. If you later want to remove Ubuntu so go it easy to restore your hard drive in its previous condition. (You can also install Ubuntu without partitioning, see above, CHECK this or ask this.)

What is the easiest way to partition?

- When you get to step four in installation, partitioning, select one of options 1-3, see next question. The installation program will then help to determine the partition design. You need to not understand the "Manual partitioning" that described below.

I have come to step four, partitioning, in installation. How to proceed?

- You can choose one of four options:

  • Alt. 1. Partitioning, resizing a partition and use the freed space.

    This option is used by the already running instance Windows and wish to keep this in parallel with Ubuntu. This option example be used to shrink a Windows partition and put Ubuntu on the part of the disk are released.

  • Alt. 2. Partitioning, use the entire disk

    All previously available on the disk (eg Windows if you have it) will be deleted and Ubuntu installed.

  • Alt. 3. Partitioning, use the largest continuous free space.

    Ubuntu will be installed on the largest unused space on the disk.

  • Alt. 4. Manual partitioning

    Here you enter yourself how the disk is partitioned. then Ubuntu will be installed. This option is also used by the person himself already partitioned disk before installation (mhatex. partitioning program under Windows). If in this way first partitioned the disk under Windows, it is then very easy to use alt. 4 to put a partition in the right space.

If you already use Windows so it will still be available if you use the alt. 1 or 3. Alt. 2 will delete an existing Windows system. According alt. 4 does one determine the partitioning what to do with a row. earlier Windows systems.

If you choose alt. 1-3 will thus installer will help determine how the partitions should designed. Existing alt. 4, see next paragraph.

Here for more information.

NOTE! If you choose "Guided Partitioning" (see question above), so no need to familiarize themselves with the details described in section below ("Manual Partitioning"). If you want to partition the other hand by hand so the following information may be useful:

Manual partitioning

Which partitions need you?

When you partition manually, you should know that the file system on the system partition (root partition), also known as /.

- You have to have a "system partition". It's called root partition. The file system that is placed on the root partition is sometimes called "/". Most systems also have a swap - partition (also called the swap area or swap partition).

It should therefore have at least two partitions. You can also break out more data from the root partition and have them on their own partitions. The most common is that it breaks out home directory and places it on a separate home-partition. The home directory is stored including the personal settings you have made to the system. (If you later reinstall the system you do not do these settings if you have a separate home partition.) Home directory is used also often used for storing data. If you do not create a separate home partition at installation, you can instead create a separate home partition later.

Note the difference between the user's home directory ( /home/<user name>, also called "~") and the home directory of the entire system (/home). It's usually the latter (/home) as sometimes puts on its own partition, see Dictionary. "/home" thus contains all users' home directories.

One reason that not create a separate home partition, be having quite a bit of disk space to allocate Ubuntu (maybe approximately <15 GB). If this is the first time you install Ubuntu, it can then be difficult to determine exactly how much you will make the three partitions of to make best use of space. - If disk space is small, it is probably easiest to just have two partitions (root and swap).

Examples of other directories that are sometimes placed on separate partitions is /boot (Sometimes make it easier to save a system crash) och /var/log (Prevents large log files - often on servers - could interfere with the system).
If you add a new partition, the numbering of the partitions that are subsequently be förskutas one step. In this case one can be forced to reinstall Ubuntu's boot loader, GRUB. (This is the case then only if you add a partition to an already installed system.)


Location of folders (file systems)
Folder   mode (partition)
system folders (/etc, /usr ...)    root partition
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
home (/home) rotpartition or Separate home partition

switching area (/swap) swappartition
System folders can a generic term also known as /. folder / home interior keeps all the user's individual home folders. (A user's home directory has the same name as the username, full path which can be eg / home / source.) Växlingsareans function is to relieve the RAM. (This system handles himself on and after installation you need vanilgen not bother changing the area more.)

How the partitions can be arranged is described in some examples below.

How big should the root partition (the system) be?

- At least 5 GB and 10 GB happy. Anyone who has a lot of empty space on the disk can assign the root partition 12-15 GB. It is very seldom a root partition needs more space than that. - Of course you can later change partition sizes, even if it is easiest to get it right first time. (If you create any more partitions must also plan the space for their data in the root partition. Another option is to create separate partitions for data storage. One can also imagine other specials, see above under "Installation".)

How big should the swap partition be?

- 512 MB (=0.5 GB) suffice in most cases. (If you want to computer to go to sleep the swap area to be larger than the computer RAM-memory.)

Earlier there was a rule that the swap partition in the Unix / Linux system would be twice as large as your RAM. Nowadays, most, however, then swap partitions with sizes ranging from 256 MB up to the size of RAM. [Ref]

Is there a simple rule of thumb to determine the partition size?

-- Partition Sizes --
2 GB
swap-partition:
12 GB
root-partition:
resterande
home-partition:
- The following simplified method may help to determine the size of the partition:
Make swap-partitionen as large as your computer's RAM. (If you do not know you can put the swap partition size to about 0.5-2 GB)
Put root partition size to 12 GB.
Assign the rest of the space for any. home partition . Give this place for the data (letters, music, photos, etc.) that you will want to store. If you intend to use the same data in Ubuntu you are using Windows you usually do not provide extra room for them. Do you have both Ubuntu and Windows on your computer (known as dual boot) so Ubuntu can often simply use data from the Windows system, such as music files.

Create a separate home partition, so the data will be stored in this. If you create a separate home partition is data stored in the root partition. Data is often stored in the home directory.

If, for example has 80 GB of disk space available on a computer that uses 2 GB of RAM would partition sizes according to this rule of thumb would be:
swap-partition: 2 GB
rot-partition: 12 GB
home-partition: 66 GB (80-2-12=66 GB)


Keep track of the partitions
Take pen and paper and write down which partitions you have currently and how patitionerna should look like after re-partitioning. list example look like this (disk size 160 GB):
partition, file system, size (free space)
As it looks now :
first Windows, NTFS, 152GB (90GB)
second Windows Recovery, NTFS, 8GB (0GB)
As it can look like when you installed Ubuntu:
first Windows, NTFS, 132GB (70GB)
second Linux (Ubuntu swap), swap, 2GB
third Linux (Ubuntu root partition), ext3, 10GB (6GB)
fourth Linux (Ubuntu home partition), ext3, 8GB (7GB)
fifth Windows Recovery, NTFS, 8GB (0GB)

Keep track of the sequence of partitions. If you make the partition the size of different so it is easier to recognize them. (In the above example the root partition 10G and 8G home partition.)

To
recovery-partitionen to restore Windows to have, on most computers, the original partition structure restored. Otherwise you recover Windows from CD / DVD discs.

Does it matter in what order the partitions located on the disk?

- No..

Some installation procedures do however swap partition early (far end) of the disk. (where the disk rotates rapidly and the disk arm does not need to be stretched so far.) If you have a separate boot partition, usually the very first lie.
Farther back in time, the one often boot partition first because some starter system (such as BIOS) could not stretch out disk arm across the disk. The limitation is little longer.
to scientifically prove that a particular partition scheme is optimal can be difficult. Bektas to the above given factors would, however, thus could try to optimize their system with the partition scheme:
first boot (if you have such a partition separately)
second swap
third root
fourth home (if you have such a partition separately)

Which File System ("Format" for hard disk partitions) should I use?

- swap area uses its own file system ("swap").

For other Ubuntu partitions (such as root and home partition) can be used as ext3 or ext4 . Other options, such as ReiserFS, is also possible.

Personally I think you should note that the older file systems ext2 and ext3 supports some useful applications. Partimage has long been used for backing up entire partitions ("image-copying" of the system using ext2 or ext3). Windows Driver fsdriver (Mainly intended for ext2) allows you to easily manage Ubuntu Partitions even from Windows. The driver Ext2fsd capable of reading all types of file system ext3. (Fsdriver can not handle certain typesv ext3 with Inode-size=256. Clonezilla is a program that is under development for the copying of entire partitions also the ext4 file system.)

My personal opinion is that it is currently (summer 2010) can wait to install the ext4 file system. If you use ext3 (or row. ext2) filesystem, it is easier to resolve issues backup entire partitions, and access to Linux files from Windows systems. You can use ext3 (the program partimage for system backup and driver Ext2fsd to access Linux files from Windows). It can ev. Also consider using ext2 (partimage for system backup and fsdriver or Ext2fsd to access Linux files from Windows). advantage of ext3 and ext4 file systems is that they are journaling (U.S. "journaling") which makes it easier to care of problems arising from such disturbances that a power failure.

Which file system specified when installing the system and partitions formatted. You simply click on that file system is desired.

If you are using Windows Networking to connect to Ubuntu so it does not matter which file system to use. The so-called Samba driver can Ubuntu to connect to Windows networks independent of file system. For those who install Ubuntu for the first time, it may not have been so important which file system you use. You can still always send and receive files to / from Windows via eg Windows Networking and Mail. Ubuntu connects always easy for the file system that Windows uses (FAT32 or NTFS).

In practice, it gets alts very well what filesystem you're using. This paragraph has mainly dealt with the situation where using Ubuntu and Windows on same computer and absolutely must be able to reach the Ubuntu files while the Windows system is running.

Backup
The approach to backup is perhaps a little different between Linux and Windows users. It is so easy to install a new Linux system that some do not consider system-backup be equally important. (All programs load quickly down from the same source.) Some Linux users back up data and therefore only at systemic problems installing it on the system.

There is also an option to install on a system but keep the home directory (where the settings and data are stored). (This assumes that the home directory is on a separate partition.) You can also try to save a regular copy of the home directory. (It will save not an image copy of the entire home partition but only the files.) To get all the files are usually then copy the MHA cpio command. (rsync can also be used for copying.) There is a separate page about Backup.

Should I choose a primary or logical partition?

- There is a general limitation that a disk can only contain four primary partitions. Therefore, it is often easy to instead always choose logic partition. (A logical partition is part of a so-called extended (extended) partition.) Many partitioning program makes this selection automatically.

Several partitioning programs begin by creating the first three partitions as primary partitions and the fourth partition is created as a logical partition. The logical partition is in an extended ("extended") partition. This extended partition can then be more logical partitions are created.

How many logical partitions a drive can contain depends on how the disk is connected. One can roughly say that the following number of partitions are possible: SCSI, SATA, Firewire - 15 logical partitions, IDE - 63 logical partitions.

How do I do if I have more disks?

- It usually has no significance how to benefit Ubuntu and ev. Windows disks. (To have Ubuntu on a disk and Windows on another 's easy to keep track of, but not required.) Have both Ubuntu and Windows on a single disk works fine.

It is worth noting that Windows is designed primarily to be the "primary" disk. Primary disk is the first person to be activated by the computer boot system (accessed via BIOS). On the counter is off the record, the so-called MBR (Master Boot Record). V.v. seeDictionary.
The easiest way is thus to allow Windows to remain where it is located. Typically the system with two disks, which adds Ubuntu on a new disk, the BIOS still to activate Windows disk first. (Ubuntu's boot loader GRUB takes care of starting treatment. It then lies in the so-called Master Boot Record (MBR) on the Windows disk.) Ubuntu system is then placed on a so-called "Secondary" disk. Usually the task is done automatically during installation. See also this.

How do I set up my Windows partition so that Ubuntu will fit?

- Often parts are not a partition of a command. You start bydefragment and then shrink the Windows partition. On the blank (unpartitioned) space that arise do you then have two or more new partitions (at least one partition system and a swap area, see this. ) End result is of course the same as if they had divided up the partition. Have you thus a Windows system disk and want to make room for Ubuntu, you can do this:

  1. Defragment Windows system (with the corresponding Windows Command)
  2. Shrinking Windows partition with at least young. 10 GB. (One must course with at least a few GB of empty space on the Windows partition so that Windows can work.)
  3. In the space freed after shrinkage add two partitions. A partition of the young. 0.5 GB (where rotation area is deferred) and a partition the remaining space (at least young. 9.5 GB, which then adds system, known as the root partition)
  4. When you then install Ubuntu, select "manual partitioning" and benefits ("allocate") space so that the swap area (swap area) and root filesystem (called /) ports on each partition.

This approach dictates that first partition the disk and then install Ubuntu. (See next question.) Another option is to allow the partitioning done while to install Ubuntu (in step four of the installation). See the next question.

When done partitioning?

One way to partition is to simply start the installation of such Ubuntu Live CD or from the so-called option ROM. (See below: Versions.) When you get to step 4 of installation, implementation partitioning. One can choose between "guided" or "manual" partitioning. (See above.)

You can partition either before or during the installation.
Another way is to first partition the disk and then perform the installation. When you get to step four of the installation, select "manual partitioning". Since partitioning which is already done so, it is now only allocate the filesystems (root, respectively. swaps) on the affected partitions. (The installation program will also format the partitions to the appropriate file systems.) This way to partition described in more detail in the next issue.
Using alternative album some consider that it is easier to partition the disk before using option ROM the actual installation as described in the previous paragraph.

Are there other ways to partition?

- The user Windows Vista or Windows 7 can best use the opportunities for the partitioning of this system provides : You find a graphical partitioner under "This computer / manage / disk management ".

There are problems described when shrunk Vista partition with GParted. (It has had to repair the MBR.) It's probably advisable to use Vista's built-in shrink / partitioner when you create partitions for Ubuntu.

There is also a text-driven programs: Diskpart.exe utility. Here are some of the partition under Windows Vista: [1, 2, 3, 4]. (Partition Magic can not be installed in Windows Vista/Windows 7.)

- Generally you can otherwise create its partitions with which program you want. Anyone who is accustomed at Partition Magic can use it. Another good option is Acronis Disk Director. In "Linux world" are used program GParted. You can download GParted as a separate (known as bootable) CD or invoke it from the Ubuntu Live CD ("Gnome partition editor"). When partition or format a disk or partition, it must be unmounted (disabled). (The program qtparted can also be used. An easy way to do this is via the Knoppix live CD.)

One should not run GParted on it is on the same partition as processed (eg heat shrink). i.e. if you are running Ubuntu from the hard disk in the usual manner shall be not click command GParted and try to shrink any of the Ubuntu partitions. If you already installed Ubuntu and want to use GParted, you have to either download a bootable disk ofGParted or start Ubuntu LiveCD (which also contains command GParted). One can not start GParted from Ubuntu on the hard disk and begin processing the Ubuntu system partitions. You have to unmount (see Glossary: mount) a partition before it can process the with GParted. (The partitioning software used in Windows, go often use without having to run them from its own disk or self partition.)
Partitions it with programs other than those included in Linux can sometimes have trouble identifying the partitions with ' "Volume ID". This usually does not cause any problems in practice. The partitions are identified instead with the partition names (eg sda1). A minor repartitioning with such GParted can restore the volume ID.


You can also partition through the command fdisk . (The command has the same name in Ubuntu / GNU / Linux and Windows / DOS.) Command is primarily used to add and remove partitions. Do you have to contrast eg shrink a partition and keep the data on that partition is usually not use fdisk. (The program that is subsequently used to format the partition called in Ubuntu mkfs and the Windows format . In order to check and repair disks and partitions using man in Ubuntu program fsck and the Windows program chkdsk .)

If you choose this way to partition before you install so do nothing if the partitions do not get the correct file systems. (You only see that size of the partitions is the one you want.) What name or logical drives (letter names) listed has no significance. Such things arranged later when you install (such as formatting the Ubuntu (GNU/Linux-) file system - often ext3 electricity. Ext4). During installation you use when option " Manual partitioning ", see above. In this case, installer then to ask on what partitions root and swap area must be added. then formatted partitions to resp. file system.

An error which sometimes can be lined up is to a partition is not going to shrink even though it contains white space. It usually help to deftragmentera further at some time or ev. run any special programs such as Perfect Disk. In Windows you can use the CHKDSK to check and repair disk errors. A good Linux programs to repair the disks is testdisk.

 

How data is stored

An easy way to store their data is to place them in Home Directory. In the home directory also stores the user's personal settings of the system. home directory is part of the root which also includes software and systems. desktop is part of the home directory.

Program can usually be downloaded automatically from the software repositories and ports under / usr directory. The home directory is always a part of the root directory, but are sometimes in a separate part (partition) of the hard disk.

The home directory is part of the system. It contains invisible files (whose names start with "."). Do not throw away your home directory! (When you delete a user account, you can delete the associated user's home directory.)

Catalog/partition

Directories has to do with where in the system (file tree) found their data. (catalogs therefore corresponds to folders in Windows.) Partitions has to do with where on the disk / disk data is located ("physically"). (Partitions are most relevant during installation.) Rot-directory (sometimes called /) always contains all other directories, including home directory. (They say that the Ubuntu (Linux) root directory of the Windows equivalent of "My Computer".) If you choose to break out the home directory and put it on its own partition so it is still part of the root directory. If you create your own home partition so contrast, thus the root partition does not contain home directory.

So that is one of the differences between Ubuntu (GNU / Linux) and Windows . In Windows, one finds such a disk / partition for data storage in "The My Computer". In Ubuntu you can mount disk / partition where you wish file tree. Therefore, it is often easy to find data in Ubuntu. One does not take into account to on which disk or partition as the data is located. Data content determines where they are placed.

Root

In this text, the term root (root), mainly to describe the directory ("folder") located in the "tip of file tree". It contains all other directories / folders. It is also called "/".

In some cases, the term "root" is also used to describe a user with administrator rights.

Whom of the following sports a beard in the pictures further up the text?
Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Richard M. Stallman, Gnu, Linus Thorvalds, Tux, Ian Murdock, Mark Shuttle­worth.
- Notify himself: Answers      [Hide]
Test your attention ability. this.
(Expanded rights is sometimes required to administer the system.) This "root user" has a own home directory - / root - while all other users' home folders located in the / home. (It is customary to then still called "/" for "root" and "/ root" for the "root user's home directory") This dual role is usually not cause misunderstanding. In Ubuntu do you usually the word "sudo" before the commands to directly obtain management rights. (For graphical applications use the command "gksu".) One of the few times you log in as root user, if you use "revovery-mode" ie trying to repair major system problems. However, this is quite rare.
This sounded complicated. Sammanfattnigsvis can say: When you start using Ubuntu it is useful to remember that the "root" ("/") is the directory ("folder") that contains all other directories. It is just not to confuse it with the directory "/ root". "/ Root" use it very often.


Please see also Glossary.

 

Some examples of how to partition:

Exempel nr.  
  Total disk space Partition Sizes  Comment
    swap root home   
1. 10 GB 512 MB 9 GB ---   
2. 80 GB 512 MB 79 GB ---   (data stored in the root partition)
3. 80 GB 512 MB 10 GB 69 GB   (Data stored in home partition)

See also question "What partitions do you need?"

512 MB is the same thing (as much space) as 0.5 GB. If the swap partition is not exactly 512 MB so you can just as well. (1 GB swap partition is also possible, if you have room.) 

A practical approach may be to first create the swap partition (0.5-1 GB) and root partition (approx. 8-12 GB). Finally, you can simply give the rest, available space to the home partition.
swap partition filesystems ("format") are simply swap. For other partitions can choose any of the filesystems ext3 or ext4.
In the first and second example in the table is the home directory on the root partition.
In the third example is home directory on a separate partition ("home-partition"). Root partition containing system and program, home partition containing your home directory with the user's data and personal settings.
Swap partition is only used by system. After installation, you do not think more about swap partition.
If you later change the size of the partition so you can of course good, but the easiest is of course if you originally set aside enough space.

Partition sizes of 200 GB, at least in the past versions of Ubuntu, a few exceptions caused problems. Please use partitions larger than 200GB, but would be a problem, against all odds, have with them, try reducing the size.

Those who do not wish to familiarize themselves with manual partitioning need not read the paragraph above, but choose instead one of options 1-3 the partitioning in step four of the installation.

 

Using Ubuntu

This page is mainly about how to install Ubuntu. Is it a problem with how to use Ubuntu or any of the programs, feel free to ask inforum. Some common questions are answered, however briefly, in this piece.

     

Every store you data and programs?

- Data (Letters, pictures, music ...) can be eg add in their home directory ( /home/<user name>) or on the desktop ( /home/<user name>/Desktop). You can also create other storage partitions.

As described above can be utilized "assembly" to quickly locate data. A storage partition, such as installed under the home directory.

to browse files and folders with File Browser Nautilus works the same way as in example Windows. Filnamet ("path") are presented in a series of buttons. Are you in the file browser to copy the file name / path then press the first ctrl / l .

Program can be downloaded from the Ubuntu software repositories. This is usually done simply with a few clicks. The system controls itself was programs ports. (They usually stored in / usr.) Programs can then usually started directly from the application menu. (Which is found at the top left.)
Programs loaded usually easily downloaded with the Ubuntu "package manager" Synaptic. If you do not find a program you think should be , check that you have made the same "software source" available. This is easily done from the System menu. See more in "premium".

A common way to download the program via the "Synaptic". Synaptic is also called "package manager" because the programs are downloaded in the form of "packages".
Another way to install software is to download them from their resp. sites and install them yourself. This way you can download programs in either
Binary (Sometimes in the form of so-called packets) or Source. The latter compile you before it is installed. (Open software that is downloaded as binary code is always available as source.)

What is "Terminal"?

Why use the terminal?
  1. The whole system becomes available.
  2. Precise commands can be given.
  3. You can build your own commands ("script").
  4. Large amounts of data can be processed.
  5. It will be easier to control your computer remotely.
  6. The computer resources are used efficiently.
  7. It is easy to describe and repeating commands.
  8. Troubleshooting can be facilitated.

- The terminal (eng. terminal, shell, command shell) represents a way to communicate with the system. (You can find the terminal during menu "Applications> Accessories". You can also press alt/F2.) Instead of pointing and clicking as you write commands. Anyone who is interested in deeper in the system and want to be able to give commands in a more detailed can use the terminal. However, it is good to use Ubuntu without a terminal.

Little one can compare the terminal with "MS-DOS mode" in Windows. An important difference between Windows and Ubuntu is that Ubuntu is the free software. This means that in principle all system functions are available to the user. Windows has deliberately concealed many of these system functions so that user will not be able to access them. terminal can be used by anyone wishing to access these more advanced features in Ubuntu.

Using the terminal is very easy. For example, move a file to a folder, you write simply:
mv fie-name folder-name
mv is therefore to "move". Moving a file in this way corresponds therefore clicking and dragging the file in the desktop environment.

Most operating systems contain a filbäddrare. In Linux or Windows graphical environment, click on folders and moved there The terminal units corresponding command cd ("change directory"). If you want to move to a subfolder named "joe", you write simply
cd joe

In order to use the terminal you need, therefore learn the name of the most common commands. The big advantage is that with commands in the terminal can reach virtually any system functionality in Ubuntu. One thing must be borne in mind: There is no trash in the terminal. Have you deleted a file, you can not get it back. write the following command (cp = copy)
cp agnes joe
so, the file "joe" will be created (a copy of the file "Agnes"). However, if the file already exists joe, then the previous verision of joe be replaced by the new version (Agnes). The old overwritten and can not get back.

In some instructions for the terminal it says, instead of the above command:
$ cp agnes joe
here has been taken with the dollar sign ("prompt") which is printed by the system in each row, before writing his command. When you yourself are using the command should not include the dollar sign.
prompt can be varied in many ways. One can, as in the example below, including username, computer name and the folder where you currently are in. Usually it ends it with a dollar sign ($), sometimes with ">".
[nick@nicks-laptop:/bin]$ cp agnes joe


The more you use your computer, the more you gain from using the terminal. But if you point and click to claim it's that they place the mouse pointer over various fields on the screen. This requires that you always observe the screen and match the mouse pointer to the corresponding field. This makes it unnecessary to course, when using the terminal, using this keyboard along with the key site change not.

An "intermediate position" is when you use graphics programs with keyboard shortcuts. That this is faster than pointing and clicking is probably all agree. (Presumably, most computer users Ctrl / C, Ctrl / V to copy and paste (eg text), instead of ananda cursor menus.)


Another "intermediate position" is the so-called ncurses interface that facilitates the user to use the program in the terminal. If the program is designed to ncurses interface that is similar to a graphics program. You can not display images, but you can jump between options.
Jump between different choices with [tab]. Select the arrows. Should more options selected, use [space] (the selected options are indicated by "*"). Press [enter / carriage return].
Ubuntu alternative CD using ncurses interface.


In the graphical environment jumping course also windows sometimes suddenly and unexpectedly emerged from the background ("focus"). In these cases it may be impossible to prevent the click of is intended for a window gives a completely different command in a new window. There you avoid the course of the terminal.

course, of course, however, the graphical environment, a great many ways, including when first starting the program in a new area. programs in the graphical environment is often intuitive. (Unfortunately, perhaps this aspect sometimes not sufficiently taken into account for the applications used by the terminal.) "Drawing Program" requires of course that you use the mouse. This text would only propagate a bit to start using the terminal, it pays off in the end


One could say that Linux actually consists of the commands that can be accessed via the terminal. In order to simplify the use of the computer also has a graphical desktop environment (Gnome, KDE, Xfce, Fluxbox ...) installed.

In order to control the settings of the desktop environment you use the program gconf-editor. gconf-editor is a program running in the graphical environment but started from the terminal ("sudo gconf-editor"). The most common and safest way to control a remote computer called ssh and includes in its simplest form, only the terminal commands. (If you can install additional programs allows you to remotely control their desktop environment, called vnc.) For this and other causes would sometimes affect settings of their desktop environment from the terminal. When you use the program gconftool-2 which started in the terminal by typing "sudo gconftool-2" Ref: [1, 2] [NOTE: Unity]


Troubleshooting and Support
Personally I think the terminal is good if you give or receive support. It is easy to describe an error when you just copy and paste text from the terminal. It gets a little harder to describe how to click in order to provoke an error.
In many instances, besides, the graphical programs the terminal commands. If you run the terminal commands that correspond to the graphical program operates one can see if the fault lies in the graphical program or the terminal commands.
Terminal programs are often old workhorse that does not change its basic function. If you are trying to solve a bug in the graphical environment of the course that the giving and receiving support use the exact same version of the graphical environment. Terminal programs have been tested for a long time. Their behavior is well known, and fewer bugs.
A diagnostic method for graphical applications can sometimes be to see if it is possible to repeat the error in the terminal.

How do you handle protected files?

- To protect the system files from damage as required special rights to eg move system files. Are you sure that you want to delete a file, but the system says that the file is protected, you can use the terminal. Terminal is a program to reach the "Applications> Accessories". In the terminal type the command "gksu nautilus". This will open a window in the file browser in which such can delete system files or where you can copy files even if the destination is write protected. (One can as usual 'click and drag "the files.)

If you use Ubuntu often you should learn a little about the access rights ("access rights") that apply to Linux files. access rights are divided into who has the right to read (r - read), write (w - write) and execute the files that applications / scripts (x - execute). special rights can be assigned to the person who owns the file, a special group of users and other users. The command chown (change owner) changes the ownership of the file. command chmod (change mode), change the access rights.

How do I register more users?

You can add more users in the system menu under "Users and Groups". Each user is given a username and password to use at login.
Each user's personal data is protected from access by other users. Please be courteous note the following. Anyone who has administrator rights, or can acquire such in that it has access to the computer ("physical") automatically get access to all user data. (This can be done by starting the computer from a CD or a USB flash drive bootable with the so-called software.) If others have access to your computer or another are an administrator on the system you must encrypt your data if they are to be protected. This thus regardless of whether you are running Ubuntu or Windows, and regardless if you have one or more users registered. This also applies if you log on with a password every time you use your computer. This applies even if you only use Windows and never ever had Ubuntu or any other operating system your computer.

During installation you can choose to install Ubuntu with encrypted home partition.
Here stand little about how to encrypt their home and swap partitions after installation. (Many people use so-called LUKS encryption, packets with "cryptsetup" and "libpam-mount".) When dealing with encryption should we read and consider the extra instructions carefully. Make the wrong one can lose their data.
To remove a avändarkonto use the same menu to add users. When you delete a user account, you can also delete the associated user's home directory.

How are the updates?

- Updates are made available from time to time, usually several times a week. Ubuntu notifies the user when there is an opportunity to make updates. As new editions (versions up gradations ) Disclosed is announced in the same way. (You can also check for updates / upgrades to the so-called upgrade procedure.)

Another way to upgrade to a new version of Ubuntu is that the newly installed system-wide but not format (not delete) their home partition. Data and personal settings, then transferred to the new system. You can also save a list of the applications you installed. (The programs are downloaded as packages. How to save and then use a package list is explained this.) When you upgrade Ubuntu (and most other operating systems) it is useful to first make a backup copy. How this occurs is described this.

How you choose to update their system may vary. Most implement the updates that are often offered several times a week. Those who use the servers often prioritize stability in the system and like to use LTS-versioner without upgrading. To upgrade to a new version must all previous updates / upgrades to be completed. It is also possible to upgrade from a LTS-version directly to the next LTS version. Upgrading is easy, you just click "upgrade procedure."

      
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What does it mean to "mount" the file system / partitions?

- The files (the "filesystem") contained on a disk / partition can be made available by those assembled. It first creates a mount point (folder) and then mount the file system there. How do you create a mount point:

sudo mkdir /media/my_filesystem
To see which file systems are available, you can use the fdisk command as here illustrated with an example. (sda is the first hard disk, sda1 is the first partition on the first hard disk)
# sudo fdisk -ul /dev/sda
Disk /dev/hda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 2431 cylinders
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 bytes
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 63 2104514 1052226 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 2104515 6297479 2096482+ 83 Linux
/dev/sda3 6329610 39054014 16362202+ 5 Extended
/dev/sda5 6329673 10522574 2096451 83 Linux
/dev/sda6 10522638 14715539 2096451 83 Linux
(The extended partition sda3 contains no user data, but is a "container" for the logical partitions sda5 and sda6.) For example, mount the file systems available on the partition sda5 in the mount point created above, you write:
sudo mount /dev/sda5 /media/my_filesystem


What is an editor?

- Linux operation checked frequently by editing text files. This is done with a program called editors, or better (but longer) Swedish "text editor". Editors edit text files. Text files are files consisting solely of characters (such as letters and numbers). In these files there is no information about the layout (no information available indicating the font size, font, etc.). ASCII files are a common type of text files.

difference between editors and word processors is that word processing programs also take into account the layout of the text to put information about the files. One can try to use word processing editors ('save the document as text only "). (We usually try to set your word processing program that does not provide automatic line endings - "nowrap" and constant character width.) It usually does not get well, in my opinion. Text files are edited with the best editors.

Windows provides the basic editors Notepad and Wordpad built. (Gratiseditorer that works reasonably include
Notepad++ and Crimson editor .)

Some might wonder why I, in a text about Ubuntu and Linux recommend Crimson Editor, a Windows software that is not free software. The answer is that I think it's important to be able to solve the problems. Of course, I have such sometimes edit files on Internetcafeer where Windows only is allowed, unfortunately.

In Ubuntu uses many editor gedit . It has the disadvantage that it (the basic model) can not save the keystrokes combinations (called macros). There are more options.

Those who use Linux very often use one of the editors vi (pronounced "vee-eye")(vim) or Emacs. These are extremely well-written programs developed and improved over many years. One can almost say that they can handle "all" text editing problems.

downside of vim and Emacs is that it takes some time to learn them, but if you are faced with more advanced text editing problems, it is worth it.

whether to choose vim or Emacs has sometimes been a source of hilarious exchanges ("The Holy War of editors"). I use and we have never experienced some form of limitation in the program.

vi / vim and Emacs has the advantage of not being dependent on a graphical environment. If you are running a server or another computer remotely, this is an advantage. (You can edit files directly on the server without having to download files every time they are edited.) Of course, one must use a non-graphical editor if you currently have removed the graphics from their computer. If you suddenly need to edit a file and a graphical environment (eg with gedit) is not available, many tend to use the editor Nano . It displays current commands on the screen and you can use it directly, without prior knowledge. Should we implement similar changes in a large number of files tend to use off-line editor practice . (See
script)


What does the "edit konfiguationsfilen"?

- Those who wish to control more advanced features sometimes asked to "edit konfiguationsfiler".
More advanced programs are governed sometimes by changing the contents of the various text files. This is done by starting a text editor / editor (eg gedit). Often you have to ask for special privileges to edit / modify these control files. For example, able to change a web server function, you write in the terminal:

gksu gedit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
där
gksu give greater rights
gedit is the editor
/etc/apache2 is the folder / directory in which the control file is
apache2.conf is the control file name
After you edit the configuration file will start you on the same server:
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart


What is fstab?

- /etc/fstab is the file that specifies which partitions installed under the directories on startup. (See the glossary:mount.)

You can specify either "regular device-name" (like sda2) or UUID definitions (unique identifier) ??of the device. To see which devices are included in the system and the unique identifier (UUID) one device assigned can do commands

sudo fdisk -l
sudo ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/
sudo blkid
If you want to get a graphical view of disks and partitions so you can use the GParted (Gnome Partition Editor).

Here is an example of how the fstab file might look like, modified from tuxfiles. The first two columns specify the partition and mount point (folder).
/dev/hda2/ext2defaults11
UUID=1234-4321/homeext2defaults12
/dev/cdrom/media/cdromautoro,noauto,user,exec00
/dev/fd0/media/floppyautorw,noauto,user,sync00
proc/procprocdefaults00
/dev/hda1swapswappri=4200
Here are some additional references that describe fstab [1, 2]

The command cat can be used to list shorter files ("cat fstab"). To list more files you can write "more /etc/fstab". (The command "more" lists files one screen at a time. Press the spacebar to see next page.)

A counterpart to regulate the assembly of the removable device is / etc / mtab.

How do I install a hard drive?

- The hard drive must have a filesystem (ext3, ext4, FAT32, NTFS, or otherwise). Most hard drives you buy today has a file system without having to format them. (Format otherwise the counter with such program GParted. Vb unmount before formatting.) disk (that device) will immediately be visible in the "places". When you click on the file system will be installed and the files are directly accessible. If you want the disk to be mounted from the system startup or wants to control its assembly in more detail puts you in a row (for each partition) in the / etc / fstab as described above. One must also create a folder (directory) that serves as mount point of the filesystem. (I used the terminal command mkdir.) [1, 2]

Disks are usually mounted automatically in the directory (folder) / media, which means they visible on the desktop. A USB drive that is connected, eg automatic right on your desktop. (If you have problems with the automatic installation of the USB device so it can sometimes help to use boot-optionen acpi=off.) / mnt is a directory used for temporary installations.

To see what device (including partitions) you have you can give the command

sudo fdisk -l
You can then mount them using the mount command. (It first creates mount points with mkdir command) To mount the fixed device automatically at system startup to include these in fstab file, as described above.

sudo fidsk -l = list the device (eg partitions) which are in the system
sudo mount = list the device which is mounted
sudo mkdir /media/my_directory = scut a mount point ("folder")
sudo mount /dev/sda5 /media/my_directory = example of a mount command
sudo umount /dev/sda5 = example of a avmonteringskommando. (It was thus NOT unmount )
/etc/fstab = the file that determines which device to be mounted automatically at boot

If you want to install a device (such as a partition), one can make in any of the following ways:
first Click on that device in the "Places"
second Using the command "mount"
third Include that device in the file "fstab"

When installing Ubuntu, the the device, which when present in the system to be included in the file fstab for automatic mounting.
If an application needs access to that device so it's good to include that device in the fstab file. You do not click on that device in the menu locations before you can run the program.


Switching to a smaller disk with a larger one may need to copy the entire contents of the disk. The best way to do this is with command yyyy (change sda ??and sdb against the current counter-indications):
dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb
gear "if" betycer input file, the switch "of" means oputput file. You can also try using the switch 'bs' (block size), eg bs=64k.

If you move the root partition to another disk, you can use Gparted. Moves to a partition to a smaller disk, you can only compress the partition if it contains white space. moved home partition you can either use Gparted or copy files with such rsync or cpio. After moving a system partition can be forced to change the GRUB (boot loader). After moving home partition or system partition can be forced to change settings in the / etc / fstab

If, for example compresses the system partition, you have to of course run (boot) your computer from a separate system such as Ubuntu Live CD or Gparted own CD. The partition it compresses may not be active.
Ref: [1, 2] Here are guides on how to break out the home directory of the root partition and add the home directory on a separate partition [1, 2]

How do you mount an iso file?

- Do you have access to an iso file (CD image) without burning a disc create a mount point and mount it like this:

mkdir /home/joe/bar
mount -o loop -t iso9660 /home/joe/foo.iso /home/joe/bar
(This therefore corresponds to the example program "DAEMON Tools" under Windows works.)

How to get to Windows-data?

- Ubuntu and Windows communicates well. Windows typically use NTFS or FAT32. even Ubuntu can use these file systems.

If you want to access Windows from Ubuntu should turn off Windows completely before you start Ubuntu. should not shut down Windows in hibernation ("hibernate").
FAT32 is built into Ubuntu and NTFS is read by driver ntfs-3g. In Windows you can install the driver fsdriver which the easily read the Ubuntu file system. fsdriver assumes that you are using any of the older filesystems in Linux (time ext2).

If you're copying system files, or do other more advanced operations one should note the following: Ubuntu / Linux has a own, well-developed system access rights ("access rights", so-called "rwx Data"). If you're copying a large amount of files with mixed "rwx-data" should I copy them to a file system where this data can be preserved, such as file systems, ext3, ext4 or reiserfs. If you copy this type of data to a disk with such NTFS file system so can not "rwx Data" saved so that you get extra work to specify access rights if the files are copied back to an Ubuntu / Linux systems. But if you only store "regular" data type music, letters, manuscripts, films, etc. you can usually store them in whatever filesystem.
One way to save system data on NTFS file system is to archive files (eg with archival program "takes") before they are copied to the NTFS disk. Ubuntu includes course program copy of the entire
Partitions (image-copy, "ghostning").

If you want to distribute files to a Windows Network install a file server named Samba. If you want to connect on a Windows Network you use the so-called "Samba Client" which is already installed in Ubuntu.
(In order to access the network do you just like in Windows - One-click "My Network Places".)

How do I install software?

- As described above install usually program by download "package" from the Ubuntu software repositories. (often with the package manager Synaptic or the terminal "sudo apt-get".) Typically usually just select the application in Application Synaptic and "click in" "out" to install the program and are directly available in the relevant menu on the Ubuntu desktop.

Ubuntu Software Center similar in function very Synaptic. Both programs are so-called graphical frontends (built with the program GTK +). This means that the programs are trying to make it easier for the user to run an underlying program (in this case apt) by providing a graphical environment. [Keyword: Ubuntu Software Centre]

You can also download the program in the form of Source (eng. source code) from such sites on the Internet. It compiles the source code itself and can then run the program. Source compiled usually as follows.

After having downloaded the source code to pack it up:

tar zxvf xyz.tar.gz -C ~/source
(in this case the packed file "xyz" up to directory "source")

Install tools for compilation:
sudo aptitude install build-essential
Use the command cd (change directory) to go to the directory where the files are unpacked. Then perform the following commands:
./configure
make
sudo make install


Here is more on how to unpackArchive. Program, Spec. source, delivered is often as an archive.

In some special cases delivered programs binaries either run directly ("static binaries") or which, in turn install the software. Sometimes running (installation) programs through shell-skript ("Batch files").




Installation, file types
The text below contain some technical terms (binary code, source code, open source software) as explained in another piece. A packet thus contains the necessary software to run the corresponding program. programs stored in binary code, but the corresponding source is always available. If you want to install packages in terminal you use the command
sudo apt-get install <program_name>
(apt-get start the program dpkg.) (Another package installer is aptitude)
Most applications in Ubuntu consists of Open Software. Sometimes, however, may have to install non-free software. This often distributed as binary code. To run the example an installation program that was distributed as binary you can write in the terminal
./<program_name>
(As described in the section on terminal you have to be in the same folder as the program. One can move between folders using the command"cd".) To run the program you can also just type the program name, eg
/home/kalle/bin/<program_name>
After installation is customary to find that one shortcut (link) to the program established or that the program can be found in the Ubuntu menus. As for the script you must also program the binary code to be executable. You can also run the binary program in the terminal with the command
sh <programnamn>
Many commands you use often is also binary files stored in the folder /bin.

One can also run a program (script or binary program) by double-clicking the program icon. One must then include two options:
first Run
second Run in terminal
It is usually best to select the option "Run in Terminal." A terminal (window) will open and you see what the program does. When the program is executed finished the window closes. (if you wish the option "Run" so the program will be executed "in the background.")


Extensions
The use of standardized extensions (extensions) are not as prevalent in Linux as in Windows. Here are some extensions which, however, are usually used:
.sh - script (The command interpreter is always present in known shell (en. shell). The scripts are called also shellskript.)
.bin (.run) - binary programs
.deb - package

How the programs are?

- Ubuntu software sources (U.S. software repositories, "repos") are divided into four groups:

  1. main - contains Free Software, the largest group
  2. restricted - regular programs, however, is not free software
  3. universe - free software which, however, Ubuntu (Canonical company) can not guarantee support
  4. multiverse - less common programs that are not free software
If you can not find a program that you expect to be in such Synaptic Package Manager, check that the corresponding software source is available. Software Sources (eng. "software sources", "reposi­tories", "repos") is set under the corresponding heading in the menu system > administration.

Personal Package Archives (PPA) (repositories, "repos") makes it possible for Ubuntu Users to distribute the software (in the form of packets) to other users. To install the software provided in the PPA, add to the current archive:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:chromium-daily
(archive Google Chromium browser, as an example)
Then do "reload" in Synaptic Package Manager. Then the package (the software) as the archive innheåller available for installation by example Synaptic Package Manager.

What is Ubuntu's keyring?

- When you use the password you are asked if you store some of these in the Ubuntu keyring. This means that you must enter a password every time you use your computer. password, open the key ring and all the passwords stored there are automatically used where they are needed.

If you do not specify a password for your keychain, you will be asked if you accept "unsafe storage". This means that anyone who has access to the computer can read your passwords in plain text. Thus, one can certainly not use the unsafe storage of unauthorized access to your computer.
If you install such SSH or VNC servers have been able to boot the computer from a remote client. This is usually only needed for more advanced debugging. If the PC is connected to a wifi network password may be forced to apply unsafe storage of the server to server to connect again without any person embarking strike the word manually.

How is the system folders organized?

- The top-level directories often contain system files. You do not know their function to use Ubuntu. There is usually enough to know the path to their home directory. If you have the username "joe" so is the full name of one's home directory: "/home/joe". A simplified expression for the home directory is "~". The desktop is reached by "/home/joe/Desktop" or words "~/Desktop".

For those who want to know more can you name some of the more important system-Directories (-mapparna):
Catalogue contents
/bin
program (system operations, boot)
/boot
bootloader ("bootloader")
/dev
hardware (to access the hardware must however, it is usually installed in a directory)
/etc
files can be edited to make settings of the system; (see "Control Panel" in Windows)
/home
users' personal data
/lib
Library
/media
this mounted the data that is on your desktop
/mnt
other (non-desktop) mounted Data
/opt
/opt fills a similar role as /usr/local/
/proc
virtual files (is not on disk) that is created when they are listed. The files often contain information about the current state. Some of the files can also be used to control the system and core work.
/root
se "Root"
/sbin
software (system operations, boot, less frequently used programs), only the root user has access to this directory
/sys
a virtual file system (is not on disk) that is used to communicate with the kernel and drivers.
/tmp
temporary files, wiped at boot
/usr
Unix System Resources, see the corresponding subdirectories
/usr/bin
most commonly used applications (non-system software) downloaded through the automatic package management
/usr/local
You can install your own applications and programs that you compile yourself. This directory is not affected by updates or by the automatic package management.
/usr/sbin
the most common system software (icke boot)
/usr/share/man
Manuals
/var
Variable files, such as log files, printer spool queue, Internet surfing cache, CD images, etc.
The command "df" can be used to find which partition a directory is and how much empty space there is.

How do you kommadon automatically at boot?

- If you wish to run commands or scripts (programs) automatically at boot, you can place these in the file [/etc/init.d/rc.local].

How to use wildcards when copying in the terminal?

- SO-CALLED wild cards are used to represent multiple characters in filenames:

* zero or more characters (numbers or letters, which are arbitrary)
? a character (which is arbitrary)
[aeiou] one of the listed characters
[0-9][0-9] two digits
[a-z,A-Z]* no letter or letters
{kanin,morot} any of the listed words
Regular expressions liknar wildcards, de representerar också textsträngar, men är betydligt mer utvecklade. Reguljära uttryck används inom textredigering och programmering.

Användandet av wildcards siljer sig något från t.ex. DOS. Vill man kopiera flera filer använder man inte wildcards i målfilen. Man skriver inte
cp *.htm d2/*.htm
to write instead
cp *.htm d2
In order to include all subfolders added the -R:
cp -R mapp1 mapp2

If the target file / folder does not exist, create it. Copying the other hand, to a folder that already exists so it will be up to copied to folder:
Form a new folder with the same innheåll as the old folder:
cp -R old_folder new_folder
Copy a folder to another folder (folder old_folder/sub_folder formed)
cp -R sub_folder old_folder
If you later make about this copy will content under_mapp to replace content old_folder/sub_folder if the filenames are the same. If you want to copy the contents insrc_mapp (But not the folder itself) to the folder gammal_mapp write thus:
cp -R src_mapp/* old_folder
As described above, the following command, however, to create the folder old_folder/sub_folder
cp -R under_mapp gammal_mapp
(Do not include "/" in the source file. It can be interpreted differently. Usually interpreted "sub_folder/" as "sub_folder", but in the systemt BSD will "sub_folder/" be interpreted as "sub_folder/*".)

A little about how to rename files larger quantities are reproduced this.

It may not have the same name to a file and a folder where they are in the same folder.

Depending on system settings can sometimes be forced to take special account to be sure that all files (ie including hidden files, ie files with names starting with "." and files with names containing special characters) copied. Here are some examples of how you can do:
tar -cvf tmp.tar.gz SRC/
cd /DEST
tar -xzvf tmp.tar.gz
rm tmp.tar.gz
or
cd SRC; tar cf - .| (cd DEST; tar xfBp -)
or
cp -a SRC DEST
Copying with cpio provides high geek status:
cd /SRC
find . -depth -print0 | sudo cpio --null --sparse -pvd /DEST/
Other tools that may be useful to copy files are rsych and unison.

How do you archive and compress files?

Windows systems often compresses files in zip format . Linux often use gzip (GNU zip). To create an archive in Linux you use the program takes. takes can also compress the archive to gzip format.
To create an archive (the folder myfolder) and compress it into gzip format, you write

tar -cvzf minMapp.tar.gz minMapp/
.tar.gz indicates that a tar-Archive compressed in GNU zip format. Instead, the Extension ".tar.gz" sometimes used ".tgz". If you want to create an archive without compression, you write
tar -cvf myFolder.tar myFolder/
To extract the files from the compressed archive, you write
tar -xzf myFolder.tar.gz

Flaggan c ("create") used to create archives.
Flaggan x ("extract") used to extract the files from an archive.
Flaggan z ("gnuZip") indicates that the archive is compressed with GNUzip format.
Flaggan v ("verbose") means that the program prints a log of what it does.
Flaggan f ("file") allows one to specify the filename will be working with.
(Shows you "-" as the file name will take to work with the so-called standard input. Standard input / output is used when sending data between applications in the so-called "pipes". If you do not use pipes it sets the default input / output usually the keyboard / screen.)

.tar.gz (.tgz, GNU-zip) archives can be opened in Windows, eg programs 7-zip, WinZip eller WinRar. Om the other hand, created a zip archive (select zip format, for example, 7-zip) on Windows and wish to open it in Linux, you can not use tar. It uses the Linux program unzip (and the corresponding"unrar" for rar-format), ex:
unzip myFolder.zip

There are also corresponding compression program for Zip archives in Linux:
zip -r myFolder myFolder
But usually it's no problem to open gzip archives under Windows.

When opening an archive, then the extracted files and folders to replace the files of the same name that already exists on the disk.

If you want to split an archive into multiple parts can be used "split". (5m in the example, enter each and maximum size as 5 MB)
split -b 5m myArchive.tar.gz SPLIT
When image files with names SPLITaa, SPLITab etc.
Clicking a file in a updelat archives in the graphical environment usually combined automatically unpacked. Sometimes it may happen that the parts are not placed in the correct order. Then you combine the archive itself:
cat SPLIT* > myArchive.tar.gz
Or if you use DOS:
copy /b SPLIT* myArchive.tar.gz
or "manually", in DOS:
copy /b SPLITaa+SPLITab+SPLITac+SPLITad myArchive.tar.gz

It is not necessary to start flags ("gears", "switches") with a hyphen. following two commands are interpreted in the same way:
tar -xzf minMapp.tar.gz
tar  xzf minMapp.tar.gz
(Men det gäller bara tar.)

Archive
To create the archive mitt_arkiv of folder "folder_name" with the division of archive files with smaller size than 20 MB and the password "carrot" write
rar a -hpcarrot -m5 -v20M -R my_archive folder_name
File can be opened with the command
unrar folder_name my_archive.rar

More on the terminal:

If you want to copy and paste text in Ubuntu you use same commands in Windows (ctrl/c, ctrl/v). In the terminal change these commands to ctrl/shift/c, ctrl/shift/v.

The commands previously typed in the terminal is obtained with the up arrow.

A common abbreviation is the designation .. Two dots indicate the folder that is one level above the folder you currently working in.

The simplest is to install programs in the desktop environment. If you want to be installing software in the terminal, type man

sudo apt-get install <program_name>

Sometimes you can find it useful to open a virtual terminal with command ctrl/alt/F1 (eller annat nummer). It comes back to the graphical mode with ctrl/alt/F7.

It is common to use Ubuntu without the graphical desktop environment. Via so-called SSH server can communicate with their Ubuntu computer from another computer over the Internet. You can edit the files directly over the Internet with non-graphical text editor (text editor) such as Emacs, Vi (m) or the simpler nano. Persons wishing to use their usual text editor instead can just download the file and edit it.

Those who want to control their computer from another computer over the Internet can also do this via desktop environment. (See more below VNC.)

Are you from the terminal change which software sources available edit the file [/etc/apt/sources.list].


Some terminal commands
Have you forgotten what commands are in an area one can use apropos. Eg:
apropos editor
provides information about the editors who are on the system.
Want to know more about a command you use the man command.
man cp
provides information on the cp command (press the space bar to scroll, 'q' to quit)
To collapse the folder x tIll archive mittarkiv with password morot (max filesize 20M) write
rar a -hpmorot -m5 -v20M -R mittarkiv x
In order to expand the archive, you write
unrar x myarchive.rar
To find the file minsida.htm in the root directory (/) or sub-directories, you write
find / -name 'minsida.htm'
To list the lines (as well as three lines before and after five rows) containing the text 'string' in any web page (. Htm file), you write
grep -B 3 -A 5 string *.htm


Obs!
Följande avsnitt är under arbete:
Reguljära uttryck, Skript, sed
Områdena behandlas främst här:
1. Skript
2. Ubuntu - Grunder (Innehållsförteckning > överkurs)
Om styckena är svårlästa så hoppa bara över dem, förstås

What do you do if you forget your password?

Log on to the so-called Recovery Mode (Hold down the shift (older versions: Escape) during the boot to see the boot menu.) If your username is joe, type in the terminal

passwd joe
Then enter the new password. (You do not see anything on the screen when you enter the password.)

If you have also forgotten your username, type
ls /home
You can also use the LiveCD to restore the password:
sudo mkdir /media/sda1
sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/sda1
sudo chroot /media/sda1
passwd joe
[Ref. 1, 2]

What is the symbolic links?

- Symbolic links allow you to easily access files or folders elsewhere in the file tree. even more advanced applications as FTP or Web servers sometimes use these links to give users access to the files. (a little one can mimic these links to Windows shortcuts.) To create a symbolic link, you write in the terminal:

ln  -s  FileOrFolder-Name  Link-Name

How are commands in the terminal?

- You simply write the command or program name to give komandot or start the program. To list the files in the home directory (~), you write:

ls ~
Växlar
To control a command in more detail one can add switches ("Switches", "options", "argument"). If you want the listing shall also include hidden files (ie files whose names begin with ".") Write
ls -a ~
Exchangers often have a short and a long correspondence. The long counterpart of the above command is
ls --all ~
The short gears you can write together. here does l=long t=order of modification date r=reverse order.
ls -ltr ~


Ett fåtal kommandon "har sin egen stil". Kommandot "tar" kräver inte ett bindestreck framför de korta växlarna. Kommandot "dd" har en syntax (skrivregler) som för tankarna till gamla IBM stordatorer:
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/home/kalle/myCD.iso bs=2048 conv=sync
("if" betyder input file och "of" output file; kommandot ovan skapar en iso-fil av en CD-skiva)
Den "Unix/Linux-liknande" mjukvarudistributionen BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) använder inte bindestreck före korta växlar. [ref.]

A gear that is good to remember is -R (rekursiv) which means that the command includes all subfolders. The-R for many commands. This example lists all files in the system (in the root directory (/) with sub-directories).
ls -R /
The listing will probably be long. If you want to cancel a command write ctrl/c. Some bills require that you enter data after the switch. When you call the editor, sed, the-f switch followed by the name of a script file who will direct the custom edit the file. -N indicates that no printing occurs.
sed -n -f sedskript myFile.txt


The background
Are you able to continue working while a program / command is run, run one program / command in the background. It does so by adding "&":
ls -lR / > list &
When the program finishes, you get a message in the terminal.

To see what programs you run, you write
ps ux
You then get a list with corresponding ID numbers for the programs you run. If you want to terminate an application note to the program ID number and write
kill -9 1234
(1234 är exempel på id-number)

How to store text?

- In Ubuntu stored text, usually as so-called Unicode of type UTF-8. Windows stores text that so-called ANSI-Code (ISO 8859). New line is also represented different. In Linux, represented a new line with new line character ("line feed", "\ n"); in Windows that carriage return + newline characters ("carriage return + line feed," " \ r \ n "). These differences usually do not cause any problems.

Occasionally, however, files edited in Linux show an inaccurate representation of the Windows regarding the specific Swedish characters / letters(åäöÅÄÖ). (SÃ¥ här bör det not look like ) An easy way to correct this error could be that download the free software Notepad++ (for Windows) which is capable of reading both Windows and Linux, the representation of the characters. Fan Notepad + + allows you to copy (ctrl / c) the right to interpret the text into other Windows applications. (Menus in Notepad + + also provides conversion functions. "Convert to ANSI" - encoding, "Convert to Windows Format" - end of line; or vice versa for files to be used in Linux)

Linux iconv program can also perform the conversion:
$ iconv -f UTF-8 -t ISO-8859-1 Linux-file > Windows-file
If you want to convert in the opposite direction, from Windows to Linux, replacing one spot on the UTF-8 (f = from), and ISO-8859-1 (t = to). Will you convert a large number of files can iconv be practical to use.


To make the line ends in a Linux file to the equivalent of a Windows file, you can execute the command
$ sed 's/$/\r/' Linux-file > Windows-file
For converting from Windows to Linux can be used tr:
$ tr -d '\r' < Windows-file > Linux-file
or in the same way with sed:
$ sed 's/^M//' Windows-file > Linux-file
The programs unix2dos, dos2unix performing the same function, for example.
$ unix2dos Linux-file > Windows-file

The same problem can sometimes occur with the file name if one of the Linux install or otherwise use file systems created under Windows or vice versa. It tends to resolve itself if you then take note of the different encodings (UTF-8 resp. ANSI) described above and sets the current programs / drivers to take them into consideration.

vi ("vee-eye") is a classic text editor with many features. If we use for editing a file previously edited in Windows you can remove the added carriage return characters (carriage return corresponds to the control character Ctrl / M) with the following command
%s/^M//g
^M is accomplished by pressing ctrl/V ctrl/M

An old way to divide the characters is to distinguish the printable and non printable characters. The latter is also known as control characters. One of the earliest classifications of characters known as ASCII. (ASCII # 0-31 is not printable, ASCII characters with higher values ??are read-only. Ctrl / M = carriage return corresponds to the ASCII # 13) Modernising character classifications ("encoding") contains many more characters than the original ASCII table did, but these modern encodings are usually based on ASCII.

The term "Windows code-page number 1252" show similarities with ANSI encoding or perhaps more accurately "MIME charset ISO-8859-1".

Anyone who manages a Linux server may occasionally have to make about specific input data for printing. In PHP, you can then use functionutf8_decode. Sometimes it can move the data from the web addresses. Then you can also delete these codes (%20=blank etc.) with urldecode.



Obs!
Följande avsnitt är under arbete:
Reguljära uttryck, Skript, sed
Områdena behandlas främst här:
1. Skript
2. Ubuntu - Grunder (Innehållsförteckning > överkurs)
Om styckena är svårlästa så hoppa bara över dem, förstås

What is a server?

- A server is a program that can answer questions from other programs. The program asks questions to servers is usually called clients. A typical server is the web server (apache2 often the program) that can deliver Web pages to browsers. (browsers Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer etc thus represents clients who ask questions (asking for web pages) to the webserver.)

You could say that two main types of programs are clients and servers. The desktop computers / workstations we use to include surfing and word processors often function as clients. These clients happened data from other computers (servers), often over the Internet. The computers that deliver the data are often specialized servers that contain mainly server. In Swedish we call server for "services". When you say "server", one can both mean a program or computer server.

A computer can contain both client and server applications. example, if you To install a webserver on your computer, you do not install any special server edition of Ubuntu. Just install the web server apache2 (only takes a minute) and add some text or html documents in the folder. Then you have created web pages for others to surf to.


website can be directly accessed if you enter your IP address in the browser address bar. Do you have your own domain name, you can register a name by any company that registers domain names. (It can cost a hundred a year.)
Most home users have dynamic IP address. This means that the IP address changes sometimes. When that happens, we must therefore change the IP number of its domain, with the company where you registered the name. There are simple script that does this automatically.
There is also
companies that offer similar services for free, but then the domain name to use part of its domain (sub domain or similar).

DNS
DNS (Domain Name Service) is the "telephone" where domain names are translated into IP numbers. example, if you enter the domain name "google.com" in the browser address bar this translates names to IP = 209.85.148.106.
If the IP number changes, such as when using dynamic IP so the whole system of DNS servers are updated. (DNS database is one of the world's largest databases.) It can sometimes take time, often from one hour to several hours. In isolated cases up to 24 hours. During this time, is not your website accessible to others. (especially long does it take for users who are far from the server, kankse across the globe.) If you use dynamic IP so it is therefore good for the internet service provider (ISP = Internet Service Provider) updates the IP as seldom as possible
Having servers with dynamic IP works for us "home users". Requires one 100% funtionaltet should probably be using static IP. At least for a mail server. If a mail server frequently change IP, the example suspected to be a spam server and the email you send can be cast into the spam bin of the major email providers!
Now, we are on the external IP number which is obtained by their ISP. If you have a router, then of course the server also be awarded a internal IP address of the router. This number puts you yourself easiest to static.
You should also know that the situation is not quite so easy to a domain name corresponds to an IP number (known as A record in DNS database). system is very flexible. you want you can have separate IP for example, web and email (MX record) or more domains on the same IP number (CNAME record) etc etc



A program can also serve alternately as a client or server A mail server acts as client to another mail server when sending an email and ask the other mail server take care of it.

A call to a computer linked to a number called the port. A server responds to requests from a specific port. A web server usually respond to requests to port 80. browsers are client programs that request web pages from web servers via port 80. (The client computer can roughly say that each program is assigned a port number and used to see which program / process that sent the call.)

It starts and stop the servers with the following commands (the web server apache2 as an example). In Ubuntu's menus ("Services"), you can set whether a server is started automatically when Ubuntu starts.
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 start
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 stop


A server uses a specific protocol. You could say that the protocol is the language that tells the server. web servers and browsers communicate with each other via the HTTP protocol (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) A second important protocol is the HTML code, the code that specifies how the browser to interpret the websites to which the server delivers.
enter the new line, indicates that an image is downloaded and displayed, etc.

A router acts as a firewall. The mixing port numbers. ("IP masquerading", "NAT" (Net Address Translation)) If you have a server behind a router you must open the corresponding port. If you have a web server behind a router, you must configure the router so that calls to the port 80 is communicated to the appropriate computer.


It is very easy to set up the router so they transmit calls to a specific port to the correct computer in your local network. The router is a table for port forwarding. It indicates one example that calls to port 80 using TCP / IP protocol shall be communicated to the computer with IP 192.168.1.104. (number must of course be the question. We often install servers with static IP. Then you do not change the port forwarding table if the router would assign server a different IP address at some point.) (TCP / IP is the protocol commonly used for Internet communications)


Another useful site is the SSH server. If you install an SSH server, you can control your computer from other computers over the Internet. You can also use the computer as a proxy server. This means that you as can surf from another computer via your proxy server. For those who wish to remain anonymous online, this is a good method. SSH server for good encryption the connection between client and server.

Mail Servers (MTA - Mail Transfer Agent) is a program that sends emails to each other. You can of course have an e-mail server to your computer if you want, but it tends to require some more settings than other servers. It's important that it works well so that you get their email delivered flawlessly. The protocol that the sending and receiving email server uses is called SMTP (port 25) To communicate with the mail server, we use email clients (such as Thunderbird, Evolution of Linux or t . ex. Outlook (Express) on Windows) that communicates with the server via protocols POP3 or IMAP (port 110 (995 for SSL) or 143 (993 for SSL)). POP3 and IMAP are therefore their own servers and protocols that allow us to use email server.


The terminal and the Internet

The terminal is therefore good at repeating tasks and to handle large data sets. Sometimes you want to automate some surfing. One may often go to a web site and repeat the same procedures.

To "surf from the terminal" is not always easy. Terminal web browser (text browser) such as Lynx can be good for simpler tasks such as download a web page in text format. , contain limitations when it comes to dynamic web pages such as contains JavaScript.
In the terminal you can use the curl to download pages, (and in combination with
script) Analyze and follow the links or fill out web forms. It requires, however, some experience to write these scripts.
If you install a web server (called a LAMP server) you can use the programming language PHP. to install a web server in Ubuntu does not take many seconds. (You can also install PHP to be used directly from the terminal.
Ref.) With PHP you can for example download web pages via features read_file, file_get_contents, wget or curl. Here, one can also process pages and with some experience automatically follow links, fill in web forms (eg password) and send cookies (for example, show that you are logged in).
Later versions of PHP (ver. 5) can analyze a web page according to its most basic building (the DOM - Document Object Model). This simplifies considerably if one such wish to "pick out" links from a web page.

Some programs can facilitate this "surfing through the terminal." This free web browser plug-in iMacros can include automate web data click and form filling and save data from the Internet. This way you can take advantage of the usual simple browser control while using the terminal's ability to automate and manage large volumes of data.


 

 

Uninstall

This piece is about how you remove (uninstall) Ubuntu from your computer if you are using Ubuntu with Windows (known "dual boot"). If you use only Ubuntu and want to uninstall it, it it's easier - you usually just put in the new operating system instead.

Uninstall - partitioned system

This paragraph deals with the uninstall of Ubuntu if you installed Ubuntu by partition the disk [1, 2]:
Uninstall Ubuntu (reset the computer's function in the original position) by starting Windows Recovery CD and give commands "fixmbr" and "fixboot". Windows starts, then direct and Ubuntu partitions can be removed.

If you use Ubuntu and Windows XP on the same machine and wish uninstall Ubuntu to use it Windows installation CD . Add the CD, restart your computer ("Boot from CD") and select recovery console ("recovery console", press F10 or R). Type " fixmbr 'to remove Ubuntu from boot sequence (replacing Ubuntu's" boot loader "with Windows ditto). You can then delete the old Ubuntu partitions and use the freed-up space that you want.

Using Ubuntu on the same computer as Windows Vista or Windows 7 do you do in a similar
way to uninstall Ubuntu.
Restart the computer (boot) from Vista recovery disk. You then select the next> Repair My Computer> Command Prompt and enter the following two commands: "bootrec /fixmbr" and "bootrec /fixboot".

You can read more about how to uninstall Ubuntu (remove Ubuntu from the boot sequence) här. It describes the commands that can be given from the Windows recovery CD.

The reason that not only can remove Ubuntu partitions directly are: When installing Ubuntu with Windows takes Ubuntu's boot loader (grub2) the boot management and allows one to choose to boot Ubuntu or Windows. order for this boot loader to work required that Ubuntu is on the disk. If you want to remove Ubuntu from a system with Windows one has to first replace the Ubuntu boot loader with Windows boot loader (the commands fixmbr and fixboot). Only then can you delete the Ubuntu partitions, described.


Existing primarily Windows Vista:
Many computers are sold with Windows Vista already posted at purchase (so-called 'OEM installation "). With the computer, however not Windows Vista recovery discs. Recovery Disc (DVD) must burn yourself. (This applies as HP and Dell laptops.) These recovery discs can only delete the whole hard drive and add a new Windows Vista. These discs can not be used to repair Windows or uninstall Ubuntu. If you use these discs to erase the entire disk and you get a new Windows Vista (without old data) set. Does not Windows Vista original recovery discs, you can then do one of two ways to uninstall Ubuntu:
first Already when installing Ubuntu choose the option "install of Windows " described
above. (Uninstallation is then very simple.)
If you have already installed Ubuntu with partitioning, select rather than option 2:
2. If a Windows Vista / Windows 7 system not supplied with the original Vista recovery DVD and the disk is partitioned for Ubuntu, you can uninstall Ubuntu as this. (We borrow / download a Windows Vista recovery disk - this is a legal download of recovery only part of Vista.) You can also use a free boot-editor from NeoSmart Technologies called EasyBCD. A third method is to use Super Grub. When using Super Grub, you can choose to only boot their system from the CD or to let CD write a new bootloader on your hard disk for the operating system is desired. (In the latter case the "repair" it of course its hard drive and do not use the Super Grub CD more.)

If you use Ubuntu and Windows on same computer and remove the Ubuntu system (without using the Windows CD in the manner described above) then the computer, as I said, not to start even though Windows is left on the counter. order to re-start Windows do you do in any of the following ways:
1. Use the Windows CD as described above ("fixmbr").
2. Use Super Grub ("Windowsboot") or EasyBCD as described above.
3. You can also install Ubuntu again. Then both Ubuntu and Windows to go to start.

Disk Management Programs Partition Magic ("Boot Magic") and Acronis Disk Director also contains boot-Features.

Super Grub
Super Grub is a very useful tool to control the computer's boot ("boot"). Super Grub website has moved a few times. As of this writing, this is the address of Super Grub. The download page is this. (Choose Cdrom v. 0.9799 near the bottom.)
The option to change the hard disk so that the future will automatically start Windows called: "WIN => MBR & !WIN! :(((((((((((((((((" Another way to achieve the same result is to select the following options in the menus: # 1 Choose Language & HELP :-)) > Windows > Fix Boot of Windows. The alternative "!WIN! :((( " start Windows without changing the hard disk. Super Grub is often used to correct disorders of the boot sequence of the (start of) Windows XP and Linux (Ubuntu). According to Super Grub also work with Windows Vista. The Super Grub select options with the up and down arrows. They confirm their choice with the right arrow key or ENTER key. In some cases you can go back with the left arrow. Here are lists and explanations of some commands: [1, 2, 3].

Boot-Repair
Boot-Repair is a graphical program that in some cases, repair boot problems with "one click" [Ref.]

Uninstall - systems without partitioning

This paragraph deals with the uninstall of Ubuntu if you installed Ubuntu "in Windows' ie without partitioning (1). This applies especially to Windows XP/Vista/7:
If you install Ubuntu without partitioning ('Install Ubuntu within / through Windows') it's extremely easy to uninstall Ubuntu. You choose: Windows> Control Panel: Add / Remove programs .

 

Versions

What versions of Ubuntu are there?

- There are many versions. This page has mainly described the most common version; Ubuntu Desktop (Live-CD). One can initially use ("test drive") Ubuntu by running the Live CD from the CD player. This does not affect your computer's hard drive. If you then choose to click the installer icon on your desktop to start an install to hard disk. It is mainly the installation as described above. If you install Ubuntu on your hard drive so system works faster and can be eg begin installing the program you wish. After installation is not the CD.

Where to download Ubuntu Desktop, you must choose one of two versions: Either the " ordinary PC " or 64-bit computer . If you are unsure you can always choose "standard PC" ("x86 architecture"), this version also works with 64-bit computer. (As with as Windows Vista / Windows 7, so is the performance gain with a 64 bit operating systems usually quite small for most users.) It is same version of a stationary desktop computer for a Notebook computer. For Mac Computer please see further down.

Alternative record (Alternate CD) installing Ubuntu directly on the hard disk. You can not use Ubuntu from alternative disc as Live CDs allow. Options leaf is used only for installation. During the installation with the option ROM is not an entirely graphical environment. (Some long or complex commands need not be written into .) Alternative record requires less computer capacity than Live CD do. (See System Requirements.) Option disc installs exactly the same system as Live-CD install (ie Ubuntu desktop environment).

As described above, one can split the installation of Ubuntu in two parts: first partitioning, 2. proper installation. If you use option ROM for installation, many believe that it is easiest way to partition the disk before to install, in the manner described above. When you then run Setup option ROM you choose manual partitioning and benefits only "mount points" (file system) on the affected partitions as described above.
If the installation of Ubuntu LiveCD shows an "unexplained" problems it can sometimes help to install the option ROM. In general it may be good advice to burn all installation disks with the lowest speed. the option ROM is also a menu option: "Test the CD ". If you had problems with the installation, it may be a good idea to run this test because it tests the current disc in the current reader.

Alternative album can be downloaded from the same page the Ubuntu Live CD. - Select option corresponding to "Text based" alternate installer "install disk".

mini.iso is a small (50-20 MB) so-called "Image" of Ubuntu. Its function is similar alternativskinvans (see paragraph above) The difference is that mini.iso only contains the files necessary to start installation. Other files required to install Ubuntu automatically downloaded from the Ubuntu software repositories on the Internet. An advantage of this method of install is that you immediately get a current system and not have to update the system immediately. The main reason to use mini.iso is that it is small. This makes some special cases of installation (eg, via network) easier.

For older Macs is a special Installation-CD. Se above.

Profiled Ubuntu Versions

Below are some examples of Ubuntu versions or derivatives in addition to basic functions have different specializations:

Kubuntu - Alternatively desktop appearancee
Edubuntu - To be used in school settings
Mythbuntu
- To record from. TV
Ubuntu Studio - To edit video, audio, graphics
Scibuntu - For scientific purposes
Ubuntu Netbook edition - For netbooks (but see next paragraph)
Linux Mint - Simplified installation and användning

[OBS! I.o.m. Ubuntu ver. 11.04 (Natty Narwhal) så har den speciella netbook-versionen tagits bort och man kan installera den "vanliga" Ubuntu-versionen även i netbook-datorer.]

The following Ubuntu versions are structured to be charged to your computer so little as possible and can be used on older computers:
1. Xubuntu - Använder window manager (desktop environment) Xfce
2. Fluxbuntu - Använder window manager (desktop environment) Fluxbox
3. lubuntu - Use the window manager (desktop environment) LXDE

The following Ubuntu versions contain only Open Source:
1. Gobuntu
2. gNewSense

Ubuntu comes out also in aserverversion. This is designed to reduce the load on your computer and have the basic version, no graphical environment.
Those who want to try using the server functions, such as start their own web server, no need to install any special server version of Ubuntu. In the beginning, it is easiest to simply install server / servers in the common desktop environment.

Ubuntu is also available for mobile units(Ubuntu Mobile and Embedded project - UME).

Ubuntu versions is pronounced usually as a word. The most common comment on such English will be approximately: "oo-BOON-too" (Ubuntu), "koo-BOON-too" (Kubuntu), "zoo-BOON-too" (Xubuntu). They say NOT "you-BOON-too" (Ubuntu) or "eks-oo-BOON-too" (Xubuntu). - P.S. You knew of course that the operating system OS X (for Macs) is pronounced "oh-es-ten"  

(The different rule in Swedish is of course equivalent to the English, but it has been easier to find reliable sources in English.)

According to Linus Torvalds wanted to call its distribution "Freax" but the comrade who stood before the FTP server gave the name Linux distribution. Torvalds accepted later this name. [ref.] In Swedish is pronounced "Linux" as the corresponding name Linus. In English pronounce most of the name "Linnuks" ("Linnicks") (short i sound). Not as many say"Lainicks". [1, 2, 3] Here you can hear how Linus Torvalds himself pronounce the name.



Out of the Ubuntu versions described in this text are not compiled by the company Canonical: , gNewSense, Linux Mint, lubuntu. Gobuntu not develop further. Instead, you can choose to install Ubuntu using only open source, without exception.


Medibuntu (Multimedia, Entertainment & Distractions In Ubuntu) is a package that contains software which can play media files show. Some of these are privately owned, and are distributed free. Since Ubuntu comes with only Free Software , So I download this package separately. procedure is simple and free.

Ubuntu Nordic Remix Edition is a version where the Nordic languages ??are already stored on the CD and not have to be downloaded.
Since languages ??are already included on the CD requires Nordic Remix slightly more space than the "regular" installation CD. Check that your CD-R discs have sufficient storage capacity before you burn the CD.


A remix is a Linux distribution that, in relation to the original distribution, undergone minor changes. In Ubuntu's case, it is often that some programs ("packages") have been added to and some may have been removed to better fit such a certain type of computers or users. Changes such as splash screen or desktop appearance can also be in the remixes.
"Ubuntu Netbook Edition" (formerly called "Ubuntu Netbook Remix") is obviously designed for netbooks.
[ NOTE: I.o.m. Ubuntu ver. 11:04 (Natty Narwhal) has the special netbook version deleted and you can install the "regular" Ubuntu version in netbooks.]
Some remixes include components that make it possible to directly play MP3 or DVD. (In the original distribution of these components must be downloaded separately described
this.) There are also remixes for special user groups, such as Christian users ("Ubuntu Christian Edition") or "Ubuntu Nordic remix", described above.
So there are several methods to install Ubuntu Desktop , eg Live CD, Nordic Remix CD, CD option. Regardless of which of these three methods exemplified choosing one will install the traditional Ubuntu desktop environment with any language.


It is possible to install Ubuntu on Macs (Macintosh). More details are above and in these links: [1, 2]. You are also very welcome to ask this.

Anyone who uses Hewlett-Packard (HP) laptop computer should read this. (The link points out some problems with using an older version of Ubuntu (7.10) on some HP laptop computers. The author of this text, however, use a notebook HP computer from the 6000 series with Ubuntu Ver. 8:04 and it works well.) [ref.]
Here there is a page for users of IBM / Lenovo Thinkpad.

Upgrading

Ubuntu is published since 2004 with two editions (upgrades) on the year. Each upgrade will have its own name with anknyting to an animal: example called version 4.11 (11 = 2011 = 04 April) also "Natty Narwhal", Version 10.10 also known as "Maverick Meerkat". (first letter of the name for the various versions change one step at a alphabetical order for each version. Sometimes you just the first part of version Name: Version 10.10 also known as simply "Maverick") When have installed Ubuntu, you can update and upgrade (the latter thus each half) its system over the Internet. All installation, update, upgrade and use of Ubuntu and related applications is thus free and without the requirement for registration. You can also order the software on CDs, be sent by mail, at no or little cost.

During the development of a new version, those who wish to download alpha, beta or RC (release candidate) versions of the non-finished version. To run these versions and rapportera buggar the Ubuntu developers is one of the many ways you can help with the development of free mukvara.
version 6.06, 8.04, 10.04 entitled " LTS " (Long Term Support). The official support time for desktop environments are here three years for servers five years. Ubuntu ambition is that about every two years to issue an LTS version.


If your upgrade date?
For commercial software is usually called a more thorough renewal of a program to upgrade. New features usually when to come. For commercial software upgrades tend to be charged. Minor changes usually are called updates. Regarding Ubuntu usually called the transition to the new version (which is usually done every six months) for an upgrade. (No part of Ubuntu's software is a charge.)

You can set the upgrade procedure (found under the System menu) to manage updates and upgrades. The default configuration shipped with the system usually do the following: Each time the computer is turned on, get list of the packages available on the server specified in the upgrade procedure. (You can choose any of the Ubuntu servers if you will, of course.) upgrade procedure then checks for new versions of the packages are installed. In so offered it to accept that these packages are updated. It usually occurs every few days or a week apart. (If we instead use commands in the terminal for the renewal package list write "sudo apt-get update". If you want to update those packages that are installed, you write "sudo apt-get upgrade ".)

Some updates require that you restart your computer, but most do not require it.

Every other year comes out Ubuntu with a long version, known as LTS version (see above). If you use this upgrade procedure is set to not upgrade to the new version until a new LTS version is available. Some updates to the security nature continues.


All software in Ubuntu is stored in the form of packets. (You can list all available or installed packages with Synaptic or programs (the terminal) dpkg.) parallel with the current version of Ubuntu also exists a development version. (For example: In parallel with the "major version" v. 10:10 "Maveric" is also a test version of next release / version: v. 11.4 "Natty". One way to help develop Ubuntu is using the trial version and report problems.) When a "major version" of Ubuntu every six months turns into a new "major version", it means the package that was developed in the trial version which will be installed in the new "master version" of Ubuntu.


Modification

What version of Ubuntu you choose need not finally determine how your computer will work. By installing and uninstalling components can change a version of Ubuntu to another. On such want to give their server a desktop environment can easily do it etc. etc. Anyone who written this text think flexibility is one of Ubuntu's best pages - that by usually fast downloads and easy installations can build on its system to the one that suits your own needs. This refers, of course main feature of the computer. For those who so wish are also large opportunities to share their desktop environment a personal touch and a striking appearance. (An example of the desktop environment can be modified is this.)

 

System Requirements

As regards the requirements that Ubuntu places on your computer, see here: [1, 2]. You generally need only consider these factors if you have a really old computer. Virtually all modern personal computers capable of running Ubuntu. If you use "Mac" or Hewlett-Packard laptop, you should read links at the bottom of the paragraph "What versions of Ubuntu is it? ". basic rule is that Ubuntu can be installed on all PCs and on Macs with Intel architecture. [See also]

Ubuntu on older computersr

The author of this text believe that a good feature of Ubuntu is that it requires less resources of your computer than eg Windows does. For computers purchased in recent years have almost not even sure that computer's capacity is enough to run Ubuntu. Ubuntu's resource-efficient design makes it is very useful on older computers. Xubuntu is a special edition of Ubuntu on older computers, its system is even lower. There are also more ways to install Xubuntu. Anyone who wants a truly lean system can start by install the server version of Ubuntu, and then supplement as needed (eg with graphical environment). There are also such installation methods for computers without floppy disk reader, or CD player. One can for example install Ubuntu over a standard network connection. If you have an older computer may you like to askthis how best to install.

- Ubuntu Live-CD requires 384 MB of memory (both for running directly from the CD player and to install and use desktop environment). (However, there are those who drive less.) Disk space for installation should be at least 6-8 GB.
- Ubuntu options CD has lower system requirements and can used for special installation requirements. Sometimes you can use the alternative CD to try to install the Ubuntu desktop environment even in computers with less than 384 MB of RAM.
- Xubuntu have low system requirements: Live CD requires 192 MB of RAM. To install Xubuntu via Alternative CD requires only 64 MB of RAM and 1.5 GB of disk space. [ref.] (Cf. with Windows XP.)
- Ubuntu server requires only 64 MB RAM and 500 MB of disk space. One of the installations that require the very least the computer is first to install Ubuntu server and then install t.ex.skrivbordsmiljön Fluxbox.
- Installing Ubuntu inWindows ("Wubi") requires 256 MB of memory. I install Xubuntu in Windows, it operate with less memory.
- It is noteworthy that many computers have graphics cards that borrows some of the computer RAM. A computer equipped with 256 MB of memory sometimes lets the graphics card use 64 MB of RAM. Such a computer can only use 192 MB of RAM to run Ubuntu. (For example, in Windows you can see how much RAM is available by clicking the Control Panel> System.) In this mode you can course, also consider installing additional memory. to install more RAM can often improve the performance of an older computer without being too expensive. (Tip when buying computer parts: Tell the salesperson what kind of computer (brand, model) that portion will be used in. Let the seller then determine the nature of such memory should be used. seller must take responsibility for that part fits when it is shipped.)
- The requirements described above are not absolute. Anyone who wishes can of course try to install Ubuntu on computers that do not fully meet the system requirements. If eg RAM does not meet the requirements are of course but the system usually slow.


If some hardware is missing

If the system no CD player the installation through partitioning sometimes be difficult to perform. Question then feel free to Forum or refer to the links nedan ("Special cases of installation"). (Usually in these cases go to find ways to install even if problems would also arise with eg, disk drive, USB port or network connection. Considering it to install via USB port, you should know about computer's BIOS supports "boot via USB.") A common way to install Ubuntu on computers without a CD player is to install via network connection ( "PXE boot", "net-boot" " net-install "). Here are some guides: [ 1 ("Server and network installations"), 2, 3, 4 (server computer running Windows)]. If you search in forum on "install pxe" one finds threads that discuss the problem.

Lacks both the computer CD player and network connection, you can try to install via floppy disks ("floppy disks"). The file with the Ubuntu system are moved to the computer you want to install Ubuntu on the example USB port or simply by temporarily moving the computer's hard drive to another computer or disk cabinet.

 

News

2011, April (v. 11.04, Natty Narwhal) New desktop environment: Unity. (In Unity, one finds the program by typing the names in the "dash". You can add programs to a "launcher" along the left edge to start programs easier.) Netbook-version amounts in the main version. OpenOffice leavesOracle and calledLibreOffice. Banshee first choice as a music player (former first choice was Rythmbox).

2011, October (v. 11.10, Oneiric Ocelot) Further development of the desktop environment Unity (Including the "places" is now equivalent of "lenses"). Thunderbird becomes preferred email client (former first choice was Evolution).



 

Open source, free / proprietary software

Free Software (Free software) refers to computer programs written under an agreement which includes making them free to use and distribute. It is also authorized to self-modifying programs. Those who wish can also using programs written in open source for commercial activities. When disseminating free software, we must also make source code available so that anyone can see what the software provides. The concept of free software has much in common with "open source". The best known is called the Agreement GPL (GNU General Public License). Here are a few lines on the background to free software.

Open source software / Free software (free software) can be characterized in several ways, often with similar meanings: Open Soruce Software (OSS), Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), Free / Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS).

In English the word is that the term "free" in the phrase "free proramvara" not have to do with the word
  "free"   in   "Free beer"   (i.e., meaning free). (Free software can be both free and paid. Often, however, free.) term "free" in the phrase "free proramvara" has more parables with use of the word   "free"   the concept   "Free speech"   (ie freedom in the sense of free to use).

Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. More precisely, it means that the program's users have the four essential freedoms:
  1. The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
  2. The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  3. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
  4. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
Ref: [GNU, wikipedia]


In determining whether a program covered by such GPL is often the expression " derivative works " into the picture. It is based on U.S. law and indicates that the work included significant copyright-protected parts of another job. Anyone who uses software covered by GPL and wish to supplement it with their own software needs to be clear over on the final product is a "derivative work" of the input GPL-licensed software. If so, must also nytillförda software published in source and licensed under the GPL.

What is "derivative works" in the software area is not entirely clear. A program can invoke a software library in two ways:
first The entire software library combined with the program in connection with the compilation - "static linking".
second Program Library ugör a separate part and the program calls the functions in the library while the program is running - "dynamic linking".
Many believe that static linking to a GPL-licensed software libraries produce "derivative works" while more views differ greatly in what circumstances dynamic linking can create "derivative works". Several other opinions on the subject have also been put forward.
Ref.

Open source software means that a program where the user can study the program's structure. The user also has the right to modify the program and redistribute it (1, 2). The concept has much in common with "free software".
It is allowed to charge for applications written in open source, but in most cases, such as Ubuntu, is a program written in open source free because everyone has the right to disseminate these programs free. concepts of open source and free software has much in common.

Ubuntu contains almost exclusively open source. A few proprietary (see next paragraph) program is used, however, by many. This can sometimes apply to programs that control hardware, such as drivers for certain video cards. Some Ubuntu Users also prefer the privately owned media player Macromedia Flash. (All these are, like Ubuntu, for free.) Ubuntu's ambition is to try replace these programs with proprietary, open source. There is also
Ubuntu Versions is completely free proprietary software and are based solely on open source. In all cases, it free to use even the parts that contain proprietary software. Although formats of MP3 (used for storage of audio including music) and DVD movies are privately owned but can be used free of charge.

Proprietary means privately. The word is often used for programs or formats for data files. Proprietary software can be free or a fee. In both cases the user will be dependent on the limitations of the program's owners created in program and the User Agreement. The user loses the ability to decide how his / her computer to work. In an unfortunate case, for example, a proprietary program to stop to function after the owner forced the user to an update. Other examples can be to a free program will be a fee or charges for use of a program dramatically increased. These problems can occur regardless if you bought a program or received a freeware. One can see the "proprietary software" as opposed to "open source". Eg Windows consists of proprietary software, while Ubuntu is of open source.

Free - One can of course say that a computer program is free when you can legally obtain it free of charge. Programs written with open source is usually (but not necessarily) free. The programs can be receive free can be written in both private (proprietary) software as open source.
      
Source - A computer program in the form in which it was written by the programmer. This form can be understood and modified by other programmers. Source code is the basis for binary code used to run the program.

Binary code (machine code, object code) - A computer program in the form that computers understand ("ones and zeros"). (Binary code is difficult to interpret for people / programmers.) This form is typically used to disseminate proprietary software as binary code is difficult to interpret and modify without have access to the underlying source code.
Binary code is a machine translation of the source that the programmer wrote. (The machine trying to "translate back" binary code to readable source code provides translations that are in practice impossible to survey. A program that people only have access to the binary form is thus effectively a "black box "that you only can use without being able know / change how it works. You do not know if it will itself change its function in the future.) It is a little more about how to install programs in Binary this.


Compilation - Binary code is obtained by allowing the source is treated of a program (called a compiler). This is called compilation.


Machine Language - Machine language (machine code, object code, "binary") are the instructions that the computer understands. They consist of ones and zeros, and is often attributed to so-called Hex code (numbers written in the hexadecimal number system).
Hex is formed by the numbers 0-9 and the letters A-F. Our "usual" number system is base 10, hex codes, the base 16. The letters AF represenenterar these numbers 10-15. In our usual number system, each figure is ten times higher value for each position to the left. The hex in turn, increase the value by a factor of 16 for each position to the left. example century 693 evaluated in our usual ("decimal") number system as follows: 3*1 + 9*10 + 6*10*10 = 693. To contrast represent 693's with hex code you write 2B5. 5*1 + 11*16 + 2*16*16 = 693 Bokstaven B corresponds, as mentioned above, number 11. The daily program assembler for a while counting hex code in the head almost as easily as the usual (decimal) number system. We others use a calculator to hex function or equivalent (or fingers for smaller numbers )

One can distinguish between expressions machine language and assembly language . assembly language consists of "menmonics" which is more readable. example 7B hex codes, binary 0111 (= 7) 1011 (= B) is represented in assembly language ("mnemonics") as "MOV A,E" which means that the contents of processor registers A move to register E. Construction of a maksinspråk naturally depends on the processor architecture and a computer system has. example of Intel's 8080 architecture.

The slightly older processor 8080 has what is called eight-bit instruction set. As mentioned above, is described in which each instruction to the processor with eight bits (ones or zeros). It is convenient to use hex to describe these instructions as eight bits correspond to two hextal.

Modern personal computers often use 32 (x86) or 64 (x86-64)-bit instruction set. The essential differences between the systems is that 64 bit systems can use more instructions in the processor and direct access (address) for more memory. (32-bit system can address a maximum of 3.2 GB of RAM)


For most normal uses enough 32 bit systems. (A 64-bit computer may well be driven by a 32 bit operating system.) Operating systems that use 64-bit displays still sometimes instability. covering such areas as both Ubuntu and Windows. who often notice that your computer will be sluggish in image processing and other calculation-intensive operations can try to install such 64 bit Ubuntu on your computer supports it.

Ett program i maskinspråk är helt enkelt en följd av instruktioner som kan laddas in i RAM-minnet. Processorn (CPU) tar läser programmet instruktion för instruktion. Vissa instruktioner innebär att processorn hoppar till ett annat område i minnet och fortsätter att läsa instruktioner där.

Vill man spara data får man helt enkelt ge en instruktion som ber processorn lagra värdet av data i en adress i minnet. (Naturligtvis en annan del av minnet än den som programmet ligger i.) Lite förenklat kan man säga att varje adress i minnet innehåller antingen en instruktion till processorn eller ett värde/data.

När man talar om assemblerspråk kan man beskriva begreppet "makro" (eng. macro). Many assemblatorer use macros. A macro means defining a set of instructions and can call them simply by entering the macro name. You can also send values ??("parameters") to the macro.

The assembler can not send values ??to the procedures in high-level programming. You can call procedures, but it just means that the program continues to execute from the procedure addresses until it finds a return-instruction and then returns to the address where the program (CPU) interrupted execution when the proc-cut was called. Someone stack to keep track of the procedure used parameters are not, where in memory these, they may keep track of myself.


Assembly language program is working faster than high-level programs. instructions affect the individual addresses in the computer, which facilitates programming of the hardware. The available instructions in machine language is simple so that it can sometimes be difficult to maintain the overview of the more complex programs. It is usually then often able to combine high-level programming with assembly language in order to exploit both their advantages.

Even if you do not need to use assembly language, it is useful to have written assembly language program. It gives an insight into the computer's basic operation - "sequential processing" - the processor goes through the memory address for the address and reads and carries out the instructions that contain addresses.


laddmodul term used to describe the object code when it is ready to be loaded into computer memory and run. The assembly code (mnemonics) that the programmer wrote is translated first into maskinkodsinstruktioner (object code). If the program calls the library functions must also be included in laddmodulen. This is called linking.

Excuse me if it was a bit messy on assembly language, the text under restructuring:) Here are some links: [1, 2, 3, 4]



Scripts - Scripts may not have directly with this section to do, but to compare it provides an explanation of what the script is. One can see the script as a program stored in the source code and not compiled. When a script is run as interpreted ("interpreters") script of the computer. An example of a scripting language can be bash (which is the language can be used directly in terminal i Linux). Other scripting languages ??such as PHP and JavaScript that builds websites. (PHP are interpreted by the web server before delivering the page to the browser. interpreted JavaScript in your browser.) One of the earliest programming languages ??with great utberedning was Basic that is usually driven by scripts. Scripting is rapidly developing, including since you do not need to compile them. You write a few lines in a file and hey presto you have made a script which can often be very useful!

A script can be said to be open source because you can study it and see how it is structured. One can sometimes find that some script calls non-free software (binaries without accompanying source code). In that case just do not know anymore what the script does. (All script is of course not licensed under GPL)

Since the script is run through an interpretation engine in the host machine (interpreter) so, the host computer must have good control over what scripts are doing. Scripting has become a popular method to distribute software. The constantly improving the capacity of computer hardware makes interpretation / interpreteringen of scripts nowadays usually not constitute a significant barrier to their use.

Here is a page on how to write script.


Glossary

  • user name
    When installing Ubuntu invited choose a user name. The name is used eg for example give names to one's own home directory.

  • binary code
    please see this.

  • BIOS
    BIOS (basic input/output system) is the system that was first started when you turn on your computer. This can be eg regulate the hardware must first be activated, such as hard drive, CD drive, USB port or network port.
    Want example the computer to boot and run directly from CD / DVD discs ("Boot CD / DVDs") you can place the CD drive first in boot order ("boot order"). It does not matter if it is always there. It simply means that the computer at every startup first checks if there is no disc to boot. If no disc in the player, the computer on in the boot order and boot from the hard drive in the normal way instead.
    are usually also able to select separately which of the hard disks to be started first.
    NOTE! Bootable USB sticks ("flash drives") are sometimes classified as hard drives and to boot ("boot") from the needle must be changed in hard disks ("HDD") boot order. (usually categorized USB sticks as a "removable device".)
    Many computers have their own way to get into the BIOS - The press usually
    some key (ex. F2 or <esc>) when the computer just started.

  • boot (bootstrap)
    When the computer is turned on is only a "POST" Power On Self Test, then reboot your computer. This is controlled by the BIOS. Booting means that the computer loads the operating system should be run. usually read your first information from the so-called MBR (in RAM) and then proceeds to download the operating system from other parts of the disk.

  • Bootable (ex. CD eller DVD)
    A bootable CD can launch an application or operating system without hard disk is used. If you insert a bootable disk in the CD player and then restart the computer so the computer will load the disc content and not use the system disk. (This requires sometimes some settings or actions of user, such as responding to the command "Press any key to boot from CD" or change in the computer's boot sequence which is part of the so-called BIOS (see above) .)

  • defragment
    After a period of use of a computer, files on the hard disk divided into several parts (fragments). Other files and empty space ports interspersed between a file's various parts. When you give command defragmentation so gather up your computer, each file's parts and places them together. White space is collected separately. The disk works faster when the empty space can be better utilized. See also this.

  • desktop
    Please see the desktop environment.

  • dual boot (multi boot)
    computer can run two (or more) operating systems. can be at the start of the computer choose which operating system to be loaded into RAM and run. (boot = boot of an operating system) This text refers frequently to be able to boot Windows or Ubuntu.

  • File System
    File systems specify how a hard drive or partition is built. In Ubuntu commonly used file systems ext3 or ext4, even eg ReiserFS can be used. Windows uses NTFS and now previous example FAT32. When you format a hard disk or partition must choose which file system you want. (A little sloppy sometimes called file system for hard drive's "format". Sometimes the term file system is also to simply denote all directories / files in one partition.)

  • file tree
    Ubuntu stores the files in something that can likened to an upside-down tree. (In this sense, therefore, a similarity with Windows and most other systems.) At the top is the root directory which contains all other directories and files. From the root directory can be eg go down the tree through the general home directory to its own home directory and desktop. The desktop address include: /home/<user-namn>/Desktop .

  • format
    When you format a disk or partition so emptied it on the data and a new file system is created. In this way prepared disk / partition for use.

  • Free Software
    please see this.

  • GNU/Linux
    please see this.

  • Free
    please seethis.

  • HDD
    In English often called disk HDD (hard disk drive).

  • Home Directory
    Each user is assigned their own directory (folder). The directory is called the user's home directory (home folder). It reaches its home directory in the address ("path") / home / . home directory contains the user data and personal preferences of system.

    Om you have multiple users in the system, each user therefore their own home directory. In multiuser systems, one can also sometimes use the word home directory to describe the directory (/home) sif contains all users ("individual") home directories. This is the home directory referred to when such talks about "put your home directory on a separate partition " see above. therefore, they should distinguish between their own home directory (sometimes called the "~") and the home directory of the entire system (also called /home).

  • homepartition (Home partition)
    Home Partition is a part of the disk used to store users' home directories. You do not have a separate home partition, you can also store home directories on the root partition. See also
    "Which partitions need to".

  • Catalogue
    A directory (U.S. directory) is used to store files and other directories. A Directory thus fulfills the same function in Ubuntu such as a folder does in Windows. One can of course also call the "folder" if you wish. See the "file tree".

  • compile, compile
    Please see this piece.

  • Source
    please seethis.

  • Linux, Linuxdistribution
    please see this.

  • Live-CD
    Ubuntu Desktop Live-CD, please see this.

  • MBR
    (Master Boot Record) An area at the beginning of such a hard disk. Here is information what the computer will do when turned on and often the hard disk is divided (partitioned table duty).

  • mount
    For example, if root file system (the system) is located on a given partition, it is said that the party tone "mounted under the root" or "the root is the mount point for the partition". To "mount" a partition (or file systems) means that the activated and can be used. The opposite is of course to unmount. See also "Catalog / partition".

  • operating systems
    The underlying "system software" that exist in all computers and that makes it allow the user to use the different programs (applications, "application programs") in your computer.

    Here explains Linux-Kernel Creator (Finland-Swede Linus Torvalds) what an operating system is. (Search "explain what an operating system is".)

  • partition, partitioning
    Please see "Partitioning".

  • Proprietary
    Please see this .

  • RAM
    RAM or "RAM-memory" (Random Access Memory) ("internal") The fastest type of memory in your computer. When the computer work load often information from other types of memories (such as hard disk and CD / DVD player) into RAM and processed there. (RAM is more expensive than, say hard drives, and unlike those so lost data from RAM if the power is turned off.)

  • remix
    Please see this.

  • Rot
    root (eng. root) is the directory that contains all other files and directories. It is also called /. (Rot can also refer to a user with administrator rights.) Here is a little more.

  • root partition
    Root partition is the portion of the disk where Ubuntu system is located. Please see "Partitioning" and "Which partitions need to".

  • server
    A server (host computer) is a computer or a computer program serving other computers / software. The server responds to requests from other computers / software. The computers / programs which use the server are called clients. Here is a little more.

  • shell
    Put simply, one can say that the shell (A. shell) is the software that translates the written commands from English into binary and back. expressions shell and CLI (command line interpreter) are fairly similar. (shell sends the commands the user types into the so-called nucleus.) A common shell script called "bash". commands are entered in the so-called terminal.

  • shell-skript
    Shell scripts are files (programs) that contains commands. One can thus facilitate long and repetitive tasks by typing commands in a shell script and then just run ("execute") script. It says more about the script this. You can also call the shell script "batch files" or "batch files".

  • Desktop
    The word desktop environment (U.S. desktop) can be used to describe the "normal" environment in which they people today use their computers. ("You point and click on folders and files .") Windows, "Mac" (OS X) and Ubuntu is mostly used in desktop environment.

    The program that receives commands through that in this way "point and click" is usually said to have a "graphical user interface " (U.S. Graphical User Interface - GUI). The alternative to desktop environment can be called "text-based environment" or "command prompt" (U.S. Command Line Interface - CLI). This latter environment is sometimes used in such servers to save computing power and simplify the management server from remote computers. In the text-based environment, you write simply enter commands via the keyboard (as in eg MS-DOS). A "middle ground" between graphical and text-based environment is called ncurses interface (arrow keys are used to move a cursor between text options).

  • swap-partition
    The swap partition is a part of your hard disk. It is used automatically by the system to relieve computer main memory. Please see "Partitioning" and "Which partitions need to".

  • terminal
    Please see this.

  • Update
    Please see this and this.

  • upgrade
    Please see this och this.

  • version
    Ubuntu comes out in different versions. Sometimes, the word version is also to indicate which edition / Upgrade using.

  • viloläge
    (eng. "suspend to disk" or "hibernate") save your computer's current state on the hard disk so that you can continue where you left off. It usually takes a little longer to put the computer in sleep mode than in standby mode, but when it is idle, it consumes no power.

  • vänteläge
    (eng. "suspend to RAM" or "sleep") save your computer's current state in RAM so that you can continue where you left off. It is quicker to put the computer in standby mode than in idle mode, but in standby draw power for your computer.

  • Open Source
    Please see this.

 


Get Involved / Ubuntu's organization

[This paragraph is only begun.]

Everyone can contribute to Ubuntu. Here are just a few examples: Write instructions for the programs / procedures, you know - for example, the threads in the forum, or so-called Wiki pages. Write programs, package software, translation software, run the Ubuntu trial version and report bugs, make flyers, answer questions in the forums, report Ubuntu during "show and tell" at school or at the library, to demonstrate to the managers, local politicians and other advantages of using Ubuntu ... ...

In the Internet world there are many talented Ubuntister who write blogs, help others, and more. In the real world deficiencies, however, activity, in my opinion. (I myself am not better, either.) Must be able to increase the use of free software you have to reach the audience that does not "hang in various computer forums all day."


This paragraph is just begun and so far there are only a few links in English:
contribute to Ubuntu
get involved
community
LoCo teams
Sveriges LoCo
Launchpad

About Support:
Ubuntu support
How to ask questions

I think most people who start using a Linux distribution will be impressed and grateful how much work that others put in the form of, for example, write programs or help other users in forums.

One must almost always a good help when you ask in the forum. Everyone wants to help, especially if a beginner asks. disqualification say, the man in question, avoiding extraneous comments such "This usually works in Windows" (it works enough in Linux too, but sometimes in a different way) or "I have quite a lot of experience of this. " (Anyone who can solve it for you probably have more.)

If you get an answer you do not understand right away, then not respond immediately "That makes I do not. Write simpler. ". Provide first response a chance. Try to read through it and see where you get stuck. Only when you tried to apply the answer but can not handle it, then write what problems you have to move on. More generally assumed to use Google or other search engine before you ask and when interpreting others' responses. (See the link above:
How to ask questions)

Anyone who deliberately provoke others in a forum called the Internet Lang for a troll :) Awareness of control has increased in the Internet forum. Trolls tend not to provoke the other so long, but that their intentions are revealed.

Those who answer the questions in the forum are working on a voluntary basis and I think you can show these people thanks. Be not afraid to write a response in a forum if you think you know. If it turns out wrong doing nothing, the following discussion shows usually what is right.

to say how much better one's own answer is than the other answers in the thread is of course unnecessary and leads the discussion wrong. If there is dissension among the respondents is the questioner just confused. (The following discussion in the thread do often that such statements will be put to shame.)

The atmosphere in the support forums are almost always pleasant and helpful. involve men, however, in more refined discussions on how such Linux community should work one finds of course that the sentences on many issues are shared.
Here are some examples of the classic, "eternal" discussions:
first Should always be used
free software or shall we sometimes recommend use of proprietary software (eg drivers for some graphics cards)?
2a. The organization should be built around a large amount of members who like olka forms of free software and computers in general or should it focus on a smaller group of members who use Ubuntu more refined?
2b. What opinions should be tolerated in a forum? perceived by some as Posts that highlights the benefits of other operating systems (eg, Windows or Ubuntu) as provocative and would not allow them.
third Should we use some standard methods when one advises beginners / others or can give advice within a wider framework only leads to the target in a simple way?
fourth Can the so-called terminal is not used when giving answers in the beginner forum? Some believe that the terminal should not be used when one advises beginners.
fifth How can a user switch from Windows to Linux. Should it turn gradually (over a period using both systems on their computer) or is it completely stop using Windows and just use Linux?
6th What's the operating system?


My personal answer to these questions is:
first It shall recommend the type of software that works best and is easiest to use. it will be good for more advanced users, as far as possible, try to use free software. In this way develop the free software faster.
2a. One should try to get as many members as possible in the organization, although not all are dedicated to Ubuntu.
2b. My uppfattnig is that you should allow as many opinions as possible. In much the same as for freedom of expression in such Swedish legislation. (Content that may be perceived as generally offensive, such as pornography, should not be allowed. One should not encourage illegal acts such as piracy. course must not slander or untrue rumors occur. ) Anyone who wants to start a discussion of such Windows vs. Ubuntu in an Ubuntu forum should be able to do it in the appropriate board (category). These discussions can usefully be brought to a debate breed. same applies to discussions about how the board operated.
It should also be aware that a forum is not automatically democratic. Many forum is controlled by administrators such as can choose to remove posts kritserar how they look after forums. administrators are usually not democratically elected, but to put themselves.
third Anyone who believes he has an idea on how to solve a problem to answer in the forums. If anyone else thinks he has a better idea, they are also welcome to give their response. Whoever asks (TS = topic creator or OP = "the Original Poster" in English) can then choose the answer that suits him.
fourth I think that sometimes you can use the terminal as a tool to answer beginners' questions. Terminal commands are often accurate, concise and easy to describe. However, if any, later in the thread, can describe a graphical method (such as how to click in Gnome) to solve the same problem so it's a nice addition.
fifth I think that a switch from Windows to Linux should be gradual. Before a user feels confident that it can solve all tasks in Linux, it may take time. Some users may have special needs that it may take time to learn to solve in a new operating system.
Others seem to have the perception that switching from Windows to Linux should be done quickly. What I understand is meant then that the user only has access to an operating system simply have to solve their problems as best it can be in the new OS.
Possibly works this latter position for skilled Linux users, but for those who have not used Linux as long as I think it's good that for a time to have such Windows to fall back on (through the "dual boot") even if the transition which takes longer.
Unfortunately, I think that the questions in forums related to "dual boot" (the computer can boot both Windows and Ubuntu) do not always treated as carefully as pure Linux Questions.
6th Looking
conjure a Linux forum, you should ask: "What is the operating system?" . (So do not.) operating system called Ubuntu, and it is based on GNU / Linux . (kernel called Linux. "The rest" is called GNU.) My opinion is that it largely should use the name GNU / Linux. I can admit that I myself careless and often use the short form "Linux". Some Ubuntister also seems to imply that it is enough to call it Ubuntu. The somewhat complicated situation is fine lighter fluid for a refreshing flamewar . Sorry I joke a bit of flame wars. I'm probably a bit tired of them. They are not as fun, but to protect freedom of expression, they must sometimes be allowed, I mean. I usually just write a post with my mind once, then let the trolls run riot as much as they want. One can not prohibit "trolling" in the forum, since the term (deliberate provocation) is too difficult to define, I think.
What absolutely must not be allowed in the forums are personal attacks. "X is stupid" should certainly not be allowed. "X did wrong in the situation" should be allowed. This is regardless if X is a regular member or executives.
A different approach than mine is to give the moderators / admins greater personal influence to sanction posts printers. I argue that this results in the forum administration is given the opportunity to use moderation to include stifle innovation in the forum which can lead to cronyism, bullying and that the forum becomes a
duck pond. Those who advocate the "tougher" usually refer to "the maintenance of peace in the forum" justify tougher moderation.
Forums moderation must be based on rules and not on opinions. It is my opinion.
I believe in taking away the focus from the titles and long appointments. Anyone who has ideas and zeal to quickly get resources and powers to try to implement their ideas. But there are many ideas how a community should be managed, this was just my views.
I often find various Ubuntu Forums have a positive attitude towards beginner questions. to respond with the infamous
"RTFM" is usually considered not as good common practice in the Ubuntu Forums. (It might say "Google is your friend." ) One should however always Google it and think a little yourself before you ask. It dramatically increases the chances that you yourself solve the problem or that you can present it so people are stimulated to find the solution.


[This paragraph is only begun.]


For more information

The text above gives the sometimes simplistic answers. To get more information please dont hesitate to ask in these forums:

ubuntu-se.org/forum

ubuntuforums.org (The main Ubuntu forum in English.)

www.ubuntu.se
www.ubuntulinux.se
www.linuxportalen.se
www.linuxquestions.org/questions/ubuntu-63
www.linuxforums.org

All questions if Ubuntu is welcome in these forums, from the simplest to the most advanced .

Association Ubuntu Sweden (now dormant):

www.ubuntuforeningen.se

Here are more tips on installation and partitioning:

Here is more information about partitioning, including more detailed description of how to use GParted.
ubuntu-se.org/wiki/Partitionera_h%C3%A5rddisk_-_f%C3%B6r_den_ovane

This thread is about partitioning (from Swedish Ubuntu forum). Feel free to ask questions here:
www.ubuntu-se.org/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=93&t=3125

ubuntu-se.org/Wiki/Installation_av_Feisty_7.04

ubuntu-se.org/mediawiki/index.php/Huvudsida/Guider/Installation

ubuntu-se.org/forum/index.php/board,93.0.html

ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=140

ubuntu-se.org/Wiki/Partitionering

ubuntu-bossieman.blogspot.com/2007/05/installera-och-komma-igng-med-ubuntu.html

www.howtoforge.com/the_perfect_desktop_ubuntu_gutsy_gibbon

screencasts.ubuntu.com/MoS2007/09_Installing_Ubuntu_Part_1

www.tuxation.com/preparing-linux-windows-dualboot.html

Some sites with Ubuntu Tip:

www.lathund.nu

www.littlejohn.se

ubuntu-bossieman.blogspot.com

When you begin to install software:

ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu:Lucid

wiki.imbumba.se

Options CD:

screencasts.ubuntu.com/MoS2007/10_Installing_Ubuntu_Part_2

Hard disk, file system:

ubuntu-se.org/Wiki/H%C3%A5rddiskIntroduktion

General:

ubuntu-se.org/Wiki/Ubuntu

people.ubuntulinux.org/~mako/docteam/quickguide/index.html

www.ubuntu.com

www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu

sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu

www.hme.se/uul

ubuntugeek

Special cases of installation:

help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation

www.ubuntugeek.com/install-ubuntukubuntuedubuntuxubuntu-without-cdrom-drive.html

How to use Windows programs under Ubuntu:

www.winehq.org

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86_virtualization

(In many cases you can directly drive a Windows programs under Ubuntu
via the command "Wine". See also
above or feel free to ask this.)

Install Ubuntu without partitioning:

wubi-installer.org

wiki.ubuntu.com/WubiGuide

ubuntu-se.org/wiki/Installera_Ubuntu_8.04_fr%C3%A5n_Windows

Other sites about Ubuntu, technical information, GNU/Linux:

www.psychocats.net/ubuntu/index.php

www.users.bigpond.net.au/hermanzone/

Examples of modification of the desktop environment , "desktop effects":

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compiz
(You can see examples if you t.ex.söker on "Compiz" (compiz-fusion) on youtube:
www.youtube.com/results?search_query=compiz&search_type= )

A neat way to present commonly used desktop icons:

help.ubuntu.com/community/CairoDock

www.cairo-dock.org/mc_album.php?a=3

Screenlets and desk pellets are (mostly small) program that can be on your desktop and provide current information on such weather, calendar data, state of your computer, etc., etc. These programs are sometimes called "widgets".

conky

screenlets.org

gDesklets

Download Ubuntu:

www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/download


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